Renewable energy in India : News & Updates

RISING SUN

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India's state coal companies target installing 5.56 GW renewable power by 2030​

India's state-run coal companies are aiming to install 5.56 GW of renewable power capacity by 2030 and take other measures designed to cut CO2 emissions in line with recent pledges made at the UN Climate Change Conference in Glasgow, the Ministry of Coal said in a statement Nov. 18.


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The renewable capacity additions planned by India's largest coal miner Coal India Ltd. and its subsidiaries, along with other state-run coal miners Singareni Coal Company Ltd. and NLC India Ltd., will see an investment of over Indian Rupees 150 billion ($2.02 billion) by 2030, taking their combined installed renewable capacity to 7 GW, the ministry said.


"Since coal has to play a role of primary fuel for power generation in our country for the time being, until renewable sources fully cater to our energy demand, the Ministry of Coal, in line with the commitment [at COP26] has already moved forward with a comprehensive sustainable development plan," it said.


India has pledged to raise its renewable capacity target from 450 MW to 500 GW by 2030 and cut its emissions intensity per unit of GDP by 45% by then from 2005 levels. It has also set itself a net zero target for 2070.


India's zero-carbon generating capacity -- renewables, nuclear and hydro power -- stood at 156.35 GW at the end of October, representing 40% of national capacity of 390.79 GW, according to the New and Renewable Power Ministry.


India had a solar power capacity of 45.61 GW and wind power capacity of 39.69 GW at end August, Central Electricity Authority data showed.


Coal dependency​


Coal India and other miners produced more than 700 million mt of coal in the fiscal year 2020-21, with raised targets aimed at reducing import dependence in subsequent years.


India's total coal supply stood at 931.34 million mt in 2020-21, including imports, Coal Ministry data showed.


India and China on Nov. 13 lobbied for a last-minute dilution in the language of the final agreement at COP26 around the coal pledge to "phase down" instead of "phase out" of unabated coal-fired power.


"I don't expect the phase down to start before 2040... right now it's a situation where it is only going to go up," said Partha Bhattacharyya, a director on the board of Canada-based coal exploration and development company Canada Colonial Coal International, and a former chairman of Coal India.


"As far as coal production and consumption is concerned, I don't see any possibility of that reducing from current levels... it will have to first go up, reach about 1.1 or 1.2 billion mt of production and 1.3 billion mt of consumption, that is where it should maybe peak and continue at that level for another 10 years before it starts gradually reducing," he said.


Under S&P Global Platts Analytics' Reference Case, India's power generation emissions of CO2 increase from 1.18 billion mt in 2021 to 1.51 billion mt in 2040.


Coal makes up 71% of India's power generation capacity.


India's coal supply:


(Unit: million mt)





Origin

2020-21

2019-20

Coal India Ltd

596.22

602.13

Singareni Collieries Company Ltd

50.58

64.04

Others/captive

69.29

64.7

Imports

215.25

248.53

Total

931.34

979.4







Source: Coal Ministry, India
 
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RISING SUN

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India's total installed renewable energy capacity crosses 150 GW mark​

The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) on November 29 announced that the country's total installed renewable energy capacity, including hydro, crossed 150 gigawatt (GW).

The government has now set a target to reach 175 GW capacity of renewable energy by 2022, which will include 100 GW of solar, 60 GW of wind, 10 GW of small hydro and 5 GW of biomass-based power projects.

A remarkable moment of celebration for the people of India as the total installed renewable energy capacity crosses the mark of 150 GW (including hydro).#renewableenergy pic.twitter.com/ZOk7sdSWkL
— Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) (@mnreindia) November 29, 2021


Earlier this month, the ministry stated that the country added 1,522.35 megawatt (MW) of renewable energy capacity in October 2021. This has raised the total renewable energy capacity of the country to 103.05 GW.
https://www.moneycontrol.com/news/o...ignoring-project-execution-risks-7693321.html
The ministry also said the 103.05 GW capacity included 47.66 GW of solar, 39.99 GW of wind, 10.58 GW of biopower and 4.82 GW of small hydro capacity.

According to MNRE, projects of 50.98 GW capacity were at various stages of completion, while projects of 32.06 GW capacity were under various stages of bidding. Also, until October 31, 2021, an expenditure of Rs 2,265.99 crore was incurred which was the ministry's total budget estimate's (FY2021-22) 39.39 percent.
 

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U.S. Strikes India Deal in Bid to Loosen China’s Grip on Solar Panels​

A U.S. foreign-development agency intended to counter Beijing’s dollar diplomacy is lending $500 million to build a solar-panel factory in India, putting American taxpayer money behind a bid to weaken China’s dominance of the solar industry’s supply chain.

The U.S. International Development Finance Corp. said Tuesday that it agreed to offer the financing to American manufacturer First Solar Inc. FSLR +3.51% for a panel-making factory in India’s Tamil Nadu state. The seven-year, debt-financing loan is one of the biggest deals in the history of the agency, which has essentially a credit-card limit of $60 billion.

The deal checks off several priorities for the agency, better known as the DFC. The White House has directed it to focus on addressing climate change and deepening ties with India. In 2019, Congress overhauled the DFC from a predecessor agency, ordering it to counter authoritarian governments in addition to promoting growth in developing countries. The idea was to offer U.S.-backed alternatives to Beijing’s global infrastructure-building program.

The DFC sought out the deal because it wanted to diversify the solar supply chain. China currently controls the production of solar panels, accounting for more than 70% of global production by some estimates, and an even higher proportion of key components such as polysilicon ingots and wafers. That dominance is troubling countries such as the U.S. and India that are trying to increase the use of solar energy.



A worker on the assembly line at a First Solar manufacturing plant.​

Photo: Dustin Franz for The Wall Street Journal

As much as half of the world’s polysilicon for solar panels comes from China’s Xinjiang region. The U.S. and other nations, as well as human-rights groups including Amnesty International, say Chinese officials have subjected mostly Muslim minorities to mass internment and forced labor. Beijing has called the allegations lies, saying it set up vocational training facilities to improve livelihoods and confront religious extremism.

First Solar’s technology doesn’t require polysilicon, allowing it to bypass Xinjiang’s supply chain.

“We’re very focused on the supply chain in Xinjiang,” said David Marchick, the DFC’s chief operating officer. He said the agency was open to more solar deals in the future.
 

RISING SUN

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I know this is not renewable power, but still it is an important development. We don't have a separate thread for thermal power so lets keep this here for now.

FGD system installation underway for nearly 60GW capacity of NTPC

By PTI
Last Updated: Dec 16, 2021, 05:50 PM IST
View attachment 22084
Total FGD commissioned capacity of NTPC so far is 1,340 MW, Power Minister R K Singh said in a written reply to the Lok Sabha. Photo: NTPC thermal power plant at Kudgi.

Synopsis
Various agencies which are setting up FGD systems are GE Power India, BHEL, ISGEC Heavy Engineering, Larsen & Toubro, Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems India, PES Engineers, TATA Projects, Engineering Projects India, KC Cotrell and Melco India.


Flue Gas De-sulphurisation (FGD) system to control pollution is installed for 1340 MW coal-fired thermal power capacity of NTPC while the work in underway at 38 plants with around 60GW capacity, Parliament was informed on Thursday. Total FGD commissioned capacity of NTPC so far is 1,340 MW, Power Minister R K Singh said in a written reply to the Lok Sabha.

He said FGD system installation is underway at 38 plants (127 units) totaling 60GW of thermal power general capacity of NTPC across the country.

Various agencies which are setting up FGD systems are GE Power India, BHEL, ISGEC Heavy Engineering, Larsen & Toubro, Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems India, PES Engineers, TATA Projects, Engineering Projects India, KC Cotrell and Melco India.

The minister told the House that the contracts have been awarded by NTPC to the contractors who have emerged as the lowest (L1) bidder project wise through competitive bidding after extensive reverse auction process and are within NTPC's cost estimate range.

The tendering in lot system had no impact on the price evaluation process as price bid evaluation has been carried out separately for each project, he said.

NTPC adopted the lot system to minimize the tendering process time with a view to awarding and meeting the timelines and accordingly, all units of NTPC were divided into various categories for implementation of FGD systems and new units were tendered first followed by old units, he stated.

Further, he said the projects which could not be awarded mainly due to higher cost with respect to cost estimates were retendered in subsequent lots.

Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC), vide notification dated December 7, 2015, issued the emission standards for Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) for thermal power plants (TPPs).

Accordingly, all TPPs are required to control the emission levels of SO2 within the prescribed standards. NTPC power plants were also covered under the said notification, he stated.

FGD system installation underway for nearly 60GW capacity of NTPC
This link thread subject could be modified as Non-renewable energy in India and converted into a sticky thread.
 
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_Anonymous_

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A team of engineers as they undertook an epic nine day trek up the frozen Zanskar River in the Himalayan region of Ladakh.

Their mission was to install a solar micro-grid in one of the most remote villages in Ladakh. With daytime temperatures of -15c, dropping to -30c at night, it was the most arduous story any of us had ever worked on.

Reporter : Justin Rowlatt

Camera : Sanjay Ganguly

A 4 minute vdo

Recvd vide WA
 

Gautam

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PM Modi to launch hydropower projects worth ₹11,000 crore in Himachal today

Built at a cost of ₹7,000 crore, the Renukaji Dam will optimally utilise the hydropower potential of the Himalayan region to bring benefits to as far away as national capital Delhi, which will be able to receive a water supply of around 500 million cubic meters per year.

Updated on Dec 27, 2021 10:22 AM IST
Written by Joydeep Bose | Edited by Meenakshi Ray, Hindustan Times, New Delhi
1640622151388.png

The Bhakra-Nangal Dam in Himachal Pradesh. (Representative Image)

Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Monday visit Mandi in Himachal Pradesh, where he will inaugurate and lay the foundation for hydropower projects worth more than ₹11,000 crore. Included among these is the Renukaji Dam project, lying pending for around three decades.

According to the Prime Minister's Office (PMO), the completion of the 40-megawatt hydropower project was only made possible by the collective effort of six states—Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand, and Delhi—at the behest of the central government.

Built at a cost of ₹7,000 crore, the Renukaji Dam will optimally utilise the hydropower potential of the Himalayan region to bring benefits to as far away as national capital Delhi, which will be able to receive a water supply of around 500 million cubic meters per year.

Prime Minister Modi will also lay the foundation stone of the Luhri Stage 1 Hydro Power Project, a 210-megawatt dam that's built at a cost of more than ₹1,800 crore and is expected to generate over 750 million units of electricity per year. According to the PMO, the modern and dependable grid support will prove beneficial to the surrounding states of the region as well.

Additionally, the Prime Minister will also lay the foundation of the Dhaulasidh Hydro Power project on Monday, the first of its type in the Hamirpur district of the state. “The 66 MW project will be built at a cost of over ₹680 crore,” reads an official press release. “It will lead to the generation of over 300 million units of electricity per year.”

PM Modi will also inaugurate the Sawra-Kuddu Hydro Power Project. “The 111 MW Project has been built at a cost of around ₹2080 crore,” the release added. “It will lead to the generation of over 380 million units of electricity per year, and help the state earn revenue worth over ₹120 crore annually.”

Finally, Prime Minister Modi will preside over the second ground-breaking ceremony of the Himachal Pradesh Global Investors' Meet on Monday. The meet, according to the PMO, is expected to give a boost to investment in the region through the start of projects worth around ₹28,000 crore.

PM Modi to launch hydropower projects worth ₹11,000 crore in Himachal today
 
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Gautam

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India’s renewables boom set to lift power exchange spot trading

By Rajesh Kumar Singh, Bloomberg
Last Updated: Dec 27, 2021, 12:24 PM IST
1640673283318.png

India’s power reforms set to boost transactions on exchanges. Representative Image.

Synopsis
More than a quarter of the nation’s electricity could be purchased through spot deals within a couple years, quadruple the current level.


A surge in renewable energy in India is set to massively increase spot power trading, according to the country’s largest electricity bourse.

Buyers will increasingly turn away from traditional long-term contracts in favor of cheaper renewable energy, said Rohit Bajaj, head of business development at Indian Energy Exchange Ltd (IEX). More than a quarter of the nation’s electricity could be purchased through spot deals within a couple years, quadruple the current level.

1640673003320.png


Coal dominates Indian power generation but that is changing, with renewables accounting for more than 80% of new capacity last year, according to BloombergNEF. More variable generation from wind and solar means short-term trading will gain in importance — offering buyers the flexibility to switch to the most efficient sources and giving clean power access to states with less renewable capacity.

“Utilities are realizing the value of flexibility and competitive price discovery on the exchanges,” Bajaj said by telephone. National investment in power cables means “there are no longer any constraints in transmission, so why go for long-term contracts?”

Almost 90% of India’s electricity is traded via bilateral contracts that typically run for more than two decades between producers and provincial utilities. These take-or-pay contracts can be onerous for power retailers at times when cheaper renewable electricity is available.

The share of power under long-term contracts is expected to fall to between 50% and 60% by the middle of the decade, according to the country’s Central Electricity Regulatory Commission.

Reducing the amount of power under long-term contracts means that producers and buyers can sidestep utilities, which are sometimes vulnerable to political moves by provincial governments that reduce their ability to pay generators, making supplies to consumers less reliable.

IEX is gearing up for the government’s plan to optimize electricity prices by pooling various sources of supply on an exchange platform. The new system, to be introduced from April, will allow more cost-efficient power plants to produce more, reducing costs for buyers, Bajaj said.

1640672977398.png


IEX, one of India’s two electricity exchanges, controls more than 95% of the spot volumes. It’s also planning to introduce contracts lasting as long as one year to tap buyers looking to secure future supplies, Bajaj said.

The growth prospects have fueled a rally in the stock. IEX’s shares have surged 243% this year, beating the industry benchmark BSE India Power Index, which has gained 69% during the period.

India’s renewables boom set to lift power exchange spot trading
 

Gautam

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Top Developments in the Indian Energy Storage Sector in 2021

Financial incentives for developers are imperative for the Indian storage market to take off

BY HARSH SHUKLA
DEC 27, 2021
1640760285318.png


India aims to have 500 GW of non-fossil fuel capacity by 2030. While renewable energy installations are steadily increasing, the country lacks adequate energy storage solutions to support the integration of renewable energy into the power mix.

According to Wartsila and KPMG, supply-side flexibility is needed at the pan-India level to integrate 450 GW of renewables by 2030. The study indicated that by 2030, India would need 38 GW of four-hour battery storage and 9 GW of thermal balancing power projects for cost-efficient and reliable integration of renewables.

India currently has just 20 MW of installed battery storage capacity, with 1.7 GW of battery capacity in the pipeline, according to Mercom India Research.

Here are the significant developments in the Indian energy storage market from 2021:

Boost for manufacturing

To enhance domestic manufacturing of advanced chemical cell (ACC) battery storage, the Department of Heavy Industry (DHI), Government of India, issued a notification for the performance-linked incentive (PLI) program ‘National program on Advanced Chemical Cell (ACC) battery storage.’ The program’s five-year incentive payout is expected to be ₹181 billion (~$2.47 billion). The department has plans to optimally incentivize potential investors, both domestic and overseas, to set up giga-scale ACC manufacturing facilities with an emphasis on maximum value addition, quality output, and achieving pre-committed capacity level within a pre-defined period.

The program aims to achieve 50 GWh of advanced chemistry cell, and 5 GWh of niche advanced chemistry cell manufacturing capacity. Under the program, battery storage manufacturers would be selected through a competitive bidding process, and the manufacturing facility would have to be commissioned within two years. The incentive will be disbursed after that over five years.

Within weeks of the announcement of the PLI program, the government-owned Bharat Heavy Electricals (BHEL) invited bids to select partners to set up a gigawatt-scale advanced chemistry cell battery storage facility. BHEL intends to bid for a minimum 5 GWh capacity.

Battery storage projects

In 2021, government agencies and private companies invited bids to develop a cumulative 3 GWh of standalone battery storage projects in India. Other significant tenders for storage systems are:
  • The Solar Energy Corporation of India (SECI) issued a notice inviting a tender for 2,000 MWh of standalone energy storage systems. The projects have to be set up on a build-own-operate (BOO) basis. SECI would enter into an agreement with the successful bidders for 25 years.
  • NTPC Limited invited expressions of interest (EoI) from Indian and global companies to set up 1,000 MWh of grid-connected battery energy storage systems (BESS) on the premises of its power projects across India.
In addition, the Government of India also gave the go-ahead to SECI to invite bids to install a 1 GWh BESS as a pilot project. The project is a joint initiative of the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) and the MoP.

Guidelines for bidding

On the policy front, the Ministry of Power amended the tariff-based competitive bidding process guidelines to procure round-the-clock (RTC) power from grid-connected renewable power projects, complemented with power from any other source. According to the new amendments, the ESS offered with a project must only be charged from renewable energy sources. The same renewable energy would be considered for compensation in case of curtailment or charging ESS. The amendments clarified that ESS charged using any source other than renewable energy will not qualify.

Energy storage is the ideal solution to manage peak demand, save operational costs, mitigate the risk of curtailment, and increase grid stability and resiliency. However, the cost of energy storage systems is the most significant hurdle for adoption among residential, commercial, and industrial customers. According to Mercom India Research, in India, currently, there are around 65 renewables plus storage projects announced, of which only six have a storage capacity totaling 136 MWh.

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s detailed analysis suggested that India’s storage technologies’ capacity could reach between 180 GW and 800 GW, representing between 10% and 25% of total installed power capacity by 2050. The storage energy capacity would be between 750 GWh and 4,900 GWh by 2050.

In 2021, India has only taken small in developing energy storage capacity. It needs to do more by establishing a robust policy framework and providing financial incentives to ensure energy storage complements the impressive growth of renewable energy in India.

Top Developments in the Indian Energy Storage Sector in 2021


MNRE Invites Consultants to Evaluate Phase-II of Grid-Connected Rooftop Solar Program

The last date to submit the bids is January 10, 2022

BY RAKESH RANJAN
DEC 23, 2021
1640760408145.png


The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) has invited expressions of interest (EoI) from consultants to evaluate Phase-II of the ‘Grid-Connected Rooftop Solar Program.’

The Phase-II of the ‘Grid-Connected Rooftop Solar Program’ was approved in March 2019. It has two components:
  • Component A: Setting up of 4,000 MW of grid-connected rooftop solar projects in the residential sector with central financial assistance (CFA)
  • Component B: Incentives to distribution companies (DISCOMs) based on their performance towards an initial 18,000 MW of grid-connected rooftop solar projects
In August 2019, MNRE issued operational guidelines to implement the program’s second phase.

The last date to submit the bids is January 10, 2022. The evaluation report should be submitted within 60 days from the award of the work.

The study aims to evaluate the implementation of Components A and B of the program by collecting information from state implementing agencies and other stakeholders, evaluating projects’ performance, identifying bottlenecks, assessing the components’ performance for different stakeholders, and providing recommendations to scale the program.

Unless approved by MNRE, any delay would invite penalties. The penalties may include reduction of consultancy fee, forfeiture of bank guarantee, termination of the contract, or any other penalty as decided by the ‘Consultancy Evaluation Committee’ constituted by MNRE.

The consultant should have experience of at least five years in conducting similar assignments. The bidder should have specific experience and in-house capability to manage the assignment.

Organizations that are already working with central and state agencies to implement the Phase-II of the ‘Rooftop Solar Program’ will not be eligible to participate in the bidding process.

The bidder’s average annual turnover should be at least ₹15 million (~$198,429)/year during the last three years.

Last month, MNRE reduced the benchmark costs, excluding the Goods and Services Tax (GST), for grid-connected rooftop solar projects for the financial year (FY) 2021-22. The revised benchmark costs for general category states vary from ₹35.89 (~$0.48)/W to ₹46.92 (~$0.62)/W (for capacities up to 500 kW).

In February this year, MNRE had issued amendments to the guidelines for the Phase II of the ‘Rooftop Solar Program.’ The implementing agency should assign a minimum of 10% of the total allocated quantity to the lowest bidder. Only the grid-connected rooftop solar systems installed in the area of the DISCOM would be considered for the calculation of incentives.

MNRE Invites Consultants to Evaluate Phase-II of Grid-Connected Rooftop Solar Program
 

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ITC commissions solar plant in Tamil Nadu at an investment of ₹76 crore


ITC plans to achieve 50% reduction in specific emissions and 30% reduction in specific energy consumption by 2030 over a 2014-15 baseline, as part of its sustainability agenda

Updated: 28 Dec 2021, 12:56 PM IST
1640761343216.png


NEW DELHI: ITC Ltd has commissioned its first offsite solar plant in Dindigul, Tamil Nadu, at an investment of ₹76 crore, the company said in a statement. The 14.9 MW solar plant will help reduce CO2 emissions over the course of its lifetime.

This new project is in line with ITC chairman Sanjiv Puri’s ‘Sustainability 2.0’ Vision, under which the conglomerate plans to meet 100% of grid electricity requirements from renewable sources by 2030.

ITC’s renewable portfolio comprises 138 MW of wind power plants and 14 MW of solar plants with 53MW of additional solar capacity under execution.

Currently, projects are also underway in other sources of renewable energy such as biomass boilers. ITC has so far invested ₹1,000 crore in renewable energy assets. Renewable energy powers the company's 20 factories, nine hotels, and six office buildings across Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, Bihar, Haryana, West Bengal, and Punjab, the company said.

The Dindigul solar plant is spread over 59 acre. The unit will generate over twenty-two million units of renewable energy annually for ITC’s hotels, food manufacturing plants, paper manufacturing facility, and printing and packaging factories in Tamil Nadu.

“At ITC, we have relentlessly pursued a mission for environmental stewardship through a gamut of large-scale endeavours that comprehensively address the threat of climate change. Our large-scale investments in renewable energy assets are an integral part of our low carbon strategy aimed at making a meaningful contribution to a net zero economy," Sanjiv Rangrass, group head, ITC Life Sciences & Technology, Central Projects, EHS & Quality Assurance, ITC Ltd., said.

Besides investments in new renewable energy assets, as part of its sustainability agenda, ITC plans to achieve 50% reduction in specific emissions and 30% reduction in specific energy consumption by 2030 over a 2014-15 baseline.

ITC commissions solar plant in Tamil Nadu at an investment of ₹76 crore
 

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IIT Guwahati team develops efficient perovskite solar cells to produce electricity from sunlight

By PTI
Last Updated: Dec 22, 2021, 01:53 PM IST
1640840957126.png

Representative Image.

Synopsis
These devices were developed achieving power conversion efficiencies beyond 21 per cent by utilising economical solution-based photovoltaic device processing techniques at mild room temperature and realising high ambient, thermal and optical stability, the researchers said.

Researchers at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Guwahati have developed hybrid pervksite solar or photovoltaic devices to produce electricity from sunlight, which are highly efficient, cost effective, easy to manufacture and easily recyclable, according to officials. These devices were developed achieving power conversion efficiencies beyond 21 per cent by utilising economical solution-based photovoltaic device processing techniques at mild room temperature and realising high ambient, thermal and optical stability, they said.

A Perovskite Solar Cell (PSC) is a type of solar cell which includes a perovskite-structured compound, most commonly a hybrid organic-inorganic lead or tin halide-based material, as the light-harvesting active layer.

Parameswar K Iyer, Professor at the institute's Department of Chemistry and Centre for Nanotechnology and School for Health Science and Technology, under whose supervision the research was conducted explained that the PSCs research has experienced tremendous attention due to their exponential growth in terms of efficiencies achieved within a decade. However, the perovskite materials are extremely unstable towards ambient (humidity and oxygen) conditions that restrict their commercialisation.

"Organic-inorganic hybrid PSCs have experienced rapid growth in terms of efficiency and stability due to the development of highly efficient functional materials combined with careful device engineering. The materials design can be tailored at the molecular level whereas the fabrication process is printable and solution-based, making the overall solar cell development process economical and scalable," he said.

"These results obtained from perovskite solar cells have performed well beyond the commercial inorganic solar cells panels which are available in the market presently. Also, these small and large area devices performances are among the best results achieved using these classes of perovskite materials. Therefore, the strategies being developed have the potential to address the renewable energy challenges regarding the large-scale commercial fabrication of efficient and stable solar panels," added Iyer.

According to the team, among all the renewable energy sources, the energy from the sun is considered to be the most sustainable due to its ample availability on the surface of the earth. Currently, inorganic solar cell (Silicon-based) is a major player in the market. However, this technology requires high-temperature processing that results in the high price of solar panels. Further, the recycling of solar panels is hazardous and complicated

IIT Guwahati team develops efficient perovskite solar cells to produce electricity from sunlight
 

RISING SUN

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