LCA Tejas Mk1 & Mk1A - News and discussions


Senior member
Dec 6, 2017
Republic of Wadiya


Salient Features

Top & bottom interspar skins & intermediate spars made of CFC

Main wing fuselage attachment brackets made of conventional and well proven A/ alloy

Heavily loaded components like pylon support brackets, slat track ribs made of Ti/Al alloy

Other machined & sheet metal components made from Al-Cu/Al-Li alloys

Most of the fatseners are Ti screws and stainless steel nuts/anchor nuts

Highly optimized wing, with appropriate variation of thickness, camber and twist along the span.

Cross sectional area distribution along the length, adjusted for good high speed characteristics

Leading edge slats, scheduled at higher AoA , for favorable aerodynamic behavior

Wing shielded bifurcated air intake duct, with diverters, suitably matched with engine to avoid buzz & to minimize distortion throughout the flight envelop

Safety Features employed in Tejas​

Tejas incorporates many world class systems to ensure the safety of pilots. Major systems are..........



An indigenous ‘on-board oxygen generating system’ designed for light combat aircraft (LCA) Tejas. With the development of ‘Integrated Life Support System-On Board Oxygen Generating System (ILSS-OBOGS)’ India joined the elite club of five countries who have established and mastered the technology in the field of ILSS for military flying. Developed by Debel, a DRDO lab focused on the development of bio‐medical and electro‐medical soldier support systems, the advanced ILSS‐OBOGS addresses the need for preventing in‐flight hypoxia (a particular problem during high-altitude flying and emergency escape) and gravity-induced loss of consciousness during high G-maneuvers.

The system uses the bleed air from the aircraft’s engine to produce oxygen, instead of the usual liquid oxygen based system. The technology consists of OBOGS that provides oxygen for breathing, a breathing regulator that supplies the breathing gas to the aircrew at desired flow and pressure, an Anti-G-Valve (AGV) that inflates the anti-gravity suit to apply desired counter pressure and an Electronic Controller Unit (ECU) to coordinate various functions. The system is helpful in long endurance flights. This system gets integrated within the confined space available in the aircraft. It replaces the Liquid Oxygen based system (LOX) by utilizing bleed air from the aircraft engine by separating oxygen from other components by a process based on Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) technology. This will prove to be beneficial as the LCA has lesser space to store the liquid oxygen. It also provides improved safety, reduced logistics and significantly lowered operational costs. The ILSS-OBOGS has the versatility to be customized to the needs of other fighter aircraft like MIG-29, Sukhoi-30 Mk1 and Mirage-2000.

A dedicated solid-state oxygen sensor to sense oxygen concentration in the breathing gas is an integral part of the system. In addition, many other subsystems that provide back‐up or redundancy and also impart life support during emergency escape are integral to the ILSS‐OBOGS.

2. Auto-Pilot​

The autopilot provides pilot relief functions. This helps the pilot to do more head down activities (especially mission critical activities) without being concerned about the aircraft departing from its flight path. The autopilot is also equipped with advanced features like auto level (which helps the pilot recover the aircraft if he gets disoriented and also during night flying), safe altitude recovery (which automatically pulls up the aircraft if it comes too close to the ground) and navigation modes (which steer the aircraft automatically along a pre-determined flight path).

3. Martin baker ejection seat​


Tejas is using martin baker Mk 16LG ejection seat. Lightweight fighter aircraft, demand significant weight reduction for all their subsystems in order to achieve a lower aircraft total mass. The Mk16 ejection seat achieves its remarkably light weight by combining the twin catapult outer cylinder tubes as both propulsion system and as the seat's primary structure. The Mk16 ejection seat design optimizes pilot field of view, improves comfort and pilot efficiency. Reliability and maintainability have been key elements in the design, resulting in an escape system that has full component accessibility in the cockpit. Modular construction enables the seat to be safely removed or installed in minutes without removing the aircraft cockpit canopy.

  • Seat firing handle pulled, centrale initiates Rigid Hermetic Transmission Chain (RHTC)
  • Command firing initiated
  • Harness power retraction unit retracts shoulder straps
  • Canopy fractured by canopy pyrotechnic cutting system
  • Primary cartridge fires, bottom latches engage, top latches disengage seat rises up rails
  • Aircraft services disconnected
  • Emergency oxygen supplied to aircrew
  • Legs and arms restrained
  • IFF tripped
  • Secondary cartridges fire as seat rises
  • Multi-purpose initiators fire
  • Mechanical Mode Selector (MMS), Barostatic Time-Release Unit (BTRU) and Drogue Deployment Unit Timer (DDUT) sears tripped
  • Underseat and lateral rocket motors fire
  • Leg restraint lines become taut and rivets shear, freeing lines from floor brackets
  • Aerodynamic surfaces deploy
  • Drogue deployment unit fires after delay
  • Time delays initiated for MMS and BTRU
  • Manual Override (MOR) lock disengaged
Low speed, low altitude mode
  • MMS senses mode, fires primary circuit
  • Drogue canister deployed, pulls bridle clear
  • Upper and lower bridle locks released
Intermediate mode

  • MMS inhibited above 7500ft (2286m)
  • Drogue stabilises and decelerates seat
High speed, low altitude mode

  • MMS inhibited above 260 KEAS or 4 G
  • Drogue stabilises and decelerates seat
  • BTRU runs out firing primary circuit
High altitude mode

  • Drogue stabilises and decelerates seat
  • Emergency oxygen supply continued
  • Drogue releases at barostate altitude of 16400ft (5000m)
  • Headbox deployment initiated
  • Upper harness locks release
  • Man portion PEC release
  • Arm and leg restraint lines cut
  • Lower harness locks release after delay
  • Parachute inflates
  • Auxiliary drogue pulls headbox clear
  • Personal locator beacon activated
  • Personal Survival Pack (PSP) retained
  • Aircrew descends on parachute
  • PSP automatically lowered after delay
  • Liferaft automatically inflates

Protection from Lightning
When lightning strikes the LCA, four metal longerons stretching from end to end, afford protection. In addition all the panels are provided with copper mesh, one out of five is ‘bonding’ bolt with gaskets to handle Electro – magnetic Interference, Aluminum foils cover bolt heads while the fuel tank is taken care of with isolation and grounding.

Canopy Severance system

Canopy Severance system (CSS) is the state of the art technology developed first time in India at ARDE for Tejas. The main aim of CSS system is to rescue the pilot in a shortest possible time during emergency of military aircraft.

CSS has got two independent systems:-

In flight Egress system (IES) - to rescue the pilot in case of emergencies when the aircraft is in flight.

Ground Egress system (GES) - TO rescue the pilot case of ground emergencies without initiating the ejection seat

The main principle behind this system is the “controlled propagation of detonation wave”

Recovery parachute system
It is mandatory for a combat aircraft to demonstrate its spin recovery capability during flight test programme. The purpose of this system is to provide emergency recovery of aircraft from an inadvertent spin in case the aircraft controls are ineffective and are unable to pull it out of spin. The recovery is achieved by deployment of a parachute, which applies an anti-moment force at the rear of the out of control aircraft bringing its nose down further. This brings the aircraft into a controlled stabilized dive and helps it to come out of spin/deep stall.

Fire Extinguisher Bottle

Fire Extinguisher Bottle is used to store and discharge fire extinguishant on initiation of cartridge by Push-button selection or automatically by a crash warning switch located in the airframe. Production Centers are M/s GTTC, Bangalore and M/s Veekay Industries, Mumbai.

Major Mechanical Systems

Major Mechanical System includes Microprocessor Controlled Brake Management System, Environment Control System, Fuel System, Nose Wheel Steering System, Landing Gear System, Hydraulic System, Secondary Power System, Life Support System, and Escape System. Major LRUs developed by ADA are Aircraft Mounted Accessories Gear Box, Filters, Up Locks, QDCs, NRV’s, Depressurization Cock, Gimble joints, ten different types of Heat Exchangers.

Major LRUs Developed by ADA are

~Aircraft Mounted Accessories Gear Box (AMAGB)

AMAGB is a gearbox that forms part of a gas turbine engine. Although not part of the engine's core, it drives the accessories, fuel pumps etc. that are otherwise essential for the operation of the engine or the aircraft on which it is mounted. Accessory drives on large engines handle between 400–500 hp.

An Aircraft-Mounted Accessories Gearbox (AMAGB) has been designed and developed for Tejas. It is a lightweight, single-input, multi-output gearbox, which takes its input drive from engine through a power take off shaft at a rated speed of 16810 rpm. AMAGB has a high power-to-weight ratio and a self-contained lubrication system. It carries four aircraft accessories on its output pads, viz., two hydraulic pumps (60 kW @ 6000 rpm each), one generator (40 kW @ 7950 rpm), and one starter unit. Together, these cater to a major part of hydraulic and electrical power requirements of the Tejas and hence forms a crucial part of its secondary power system.

The design of AMAGB included: (i) installation study, (ii) preliminary design, and (iii) detail design for prototype fabrication. All these were subjected to critical project reviews at each stage. Installation studies were carried out and cleared in consultation with HAL. The software used for gear train optimization, gear size selection, stress analysis of gear teeth and its webs, shafts stress critical speed analysis, and spline stress analysis has been developed indigenously.

The gears are made of electro slag refined 3.5 per cent Ni-Cr case hardening alloy steel. The gears are case carburized and ground to DIN 5 class of accuracy. Many gears are designed integral with the shafts for minimum weight consideration. ISO standard splines, precision gear grinding and cylindrical grinding have been successfully developed adhering to appropriate quality standards requirements. The shaft ends have been suitably designed to act as inner race of the bearings eliminating the inner race.

Two modules of external gear type lube pumps have been developed and assembled at the rear side of AMAGB casing. The pumps are driven by AMAGB gear train itself and provide sufficient flow and pressure requirement (20 lpm, 10 bar at 6000 rpm) to AMAGB lubricating system. Other items of AMAGB, such as drive pads, static deaerator, gravity die cast aluminium alloy components, lubrication jets and static oil seals have been developed successfully utilizing manufacturing facilities available locally.

The casing for AMAGB is made of thin walled magnesium alloy (RZ-5) with integral reservoir and built-in mini cored oil passages. Solid/surface models of the casing were made on the IBM 3020 computer using CATIA software and stress analyzed using ELFINI software.


The thin walled magnesium alloy casting with in-built lubrication passages and integral reservoir for proto type production has been developed and inspected as per MIL-STD 2175 class 1 using Mini Core technology. Seven prototypes of AMAGB have been built. These assemblies were carried out in a specially designed dust free assembly cubicles. Number of special assembly/dis-assembly tools were designed, manufactured and used during assembly of prototypes.

Salient Features

Power plant : GE-F404 / Kaveri
Power transmission : 185 kW (250 hp)
Speed : 16810 rpm
Weight : 34.4 kg
Overall dimension : 720 mm (L) x 450 mm (H) x 120 mm (W)

AMAGB is designed and developed by CVRDE, Chennai and production center is HAL - Engine Divsion, Bangalore.

~Up Lock

To lock the undercarriage (U/C) and its doors on retraction in the up position. Locking is mechanical and unlocking is controlled hydraulically. M/s Turbo Tech India Pvt Ltd., Bangalore is the Production Center.

~Carbon-Carbon Composites for Aircraft Brakes

Carbon-Carbon Brakes are developed by ASL, Hyderabad and Production Center Graphite India Ltd, Bangalore

  • Provide drag
  • Absorb Kinetic Energy by converting into heat
  • Hold Aircraft stationary against Engine thrust
~Hydraulic system

Hydraulic systems are used on aircraft to move and actuate landing gear, flaps and brakes. Larger aircraft use these systems also on flight controls, spoilers, thrust reversers and what not. The reason to use hydraulics is because they are able to transmit a very high pressure or force with a small volume of fluid (hydraulic oil). Hydraulic system liquids are used primarily to transmit and distribute forces to various units to be actuated. Liquids are able to do this because they are almost incompressible.

Tejas employs a high performance 4000psi rated hydraulic system with the fluid conforming to MIL H5606/DTD 585/AMG-2 standards, at a rated flow of 1101 pm for each system. All hydraulic pumps including the 35 lpm and 130lpm pumps as well as the system filters

Flight controls consists of four elevons , six slat and two air brake actuators besides the single rudder actuator , for driving the control surfaces. The dual hydraulic, quadruplex electric elevon and rudder actuator have direct drive valves and develop a 10 and 5 ton class stall force respectively. The single hydraulic, duplex leading edge slat and airbrake actuators have electro hydraulic servo control and are designed for 2 ton and 5 ton class stall force respectively.

Tejas hydraulic system is fitted with filters having mesh sizes in the range of 10 to 25 micron. Filters are used in pressure, return and drain lines, to ensure supply of clean oil to the system components for their reliable operations as per NAS (class-1) cleanliness level these filters have a higher filtration rating (β≥100) and operate at -54 C to 135 C temperature conditions. Filters have been provided with unique by-pass valve & automatic shut-off valve arrangement, visual clogging indicator with manual reset and excellent resistance to flow fatigue. Filters developed are qualified for aircraft applications, in conformity with requirements of MIL-F-8815D standard

~Hydraulic and Lube Filters

Filters provide adequate control of the contamination problem during all normal hydraulic system operations. LCA Hydraulic system is fitted with 9 filters of 6 types to control the particulate contamination in the system. Filter element is developed by M/s Mikro Flo Filters, Hyderbad. Production Center is M/s CTTC, Bhuvaneshwar. The high performance hydraulic filters are qualified to meet requirements of MIL-F-8815D.

~Gimbal Assembly with Venturi

Gimbal Assy. With venturi is designed for Max. Operating Temp: 650ºC, with Max. Operating Pressure: 37bar’g’ and Movement: ±10mm (Three axes). M/s Metallic Bellows, Chennai and M/s Veekay Industries, Mumbai are the Production Centers.

~Heat Exchangers

A heat exchanger is a piece of a machine built for resourceful heat transfer from one medium to another. The classic example of a heat exchanger is found in an internal combustion engine in which a circulating fluid known as engine coolant flows through radiator coils and air flows past the coils, which cools the coolant and heats the incoming air. Heat exchangers are commonly used to cool hydraulics, RAM air, auxiliary power units, gearboxes, and many other components that consist of an aircraft. Although temperature is a feature associated with liquid cooling, when heat exchanger services are used at high altitudes air density and pressure are additional features considered. For sufficient airflow, heat exchanger’s fan must be carefully selected based on the ambient pressure. At high altitudes, the density of air is drastically lower. So it takes more airflow to remove the same amount of heat since the same volume of air has fewer air molecules for absorption of heat. The two most commonly use heat exchanged in aviation are the flat tube and the plate-fin heat exchangers.

Successfully designed, developed by BHEL-HPVP (Formerly BHPV) and flight qualified 10 types of compact plate-fin heat exchangers for LCA TEJAS aircraft.

~Secondary Heat Exchanger

Secondary Heat Exchanger is a cross-counter flow plate fin heat exchanger made of Al alloy with a single pass for the cold stream (ram air) and a double pass for hot stream (charge air). A part of the heat exchanger is also used for cooling air supply for fuel tank and gearbox pressurization. It cools charge air at 230 C and mass flow rate of 34 kg/min to less than 102 C for ram air at 91 C and mass flow rate of 224 kg/min.

Salient Features

Hot Air Side

Nominal mass flow : 34 kg/min
Temperature drop : 130 C
Pressure drop : 350 mbar

Cold Air Side

Nominal mass flow : 285 kg/min
Pressure drop : 260 mbar


~Condenser Heat Exchanger

Condenser Heat Exchanger is a cross-flow plate fin heat exchanger made of Al alloy. It performs the function of cooling the hot air coming from reheater before entry to water separator using cold air from turbine inlet. It cools charge air from 63 C at a flow rate of 35 kg/min to less than 38 C for cold air at -31C and mass flow rate of 33 kg/min.

Salient Features

Hot Air Side

Mass flow rate : 35 kg/min
Temperature drop : 25 C
Pressure drop : 130 mbar

Cold Air Side

Mass flow rate : 33 kg/min
Pressure drop : 100 mbar

~Regenerative Heat Exchanger

Regenerative Heat Exchanger is a cross-flow plate fin heat exchanger made of Al alloy. It performs the function of cooling charge air coming from secondary heat exchanger (SHE) by using a part of ram air tapped from SHE ram air inlet duct and water drained from the water separator. It includes a mixing chamber with water injected at ram air inlet end. It cools charge air at 102 C and flow rate of 35 kg/min to less than 75 C by using mixture of ram air at 91 C and water with a mass flow rate of 5.2 kg/min.

Salient Features

Hot Air Side

Nominal mass flow : 35 kg/min
Temperature drop : 25 C
Pressure drop : 150 mbar

Cold Air Side

Nominal mass flow : 5 kg/min
Pressure drop : 150 mbar

~GTSU-127 (Jet fuel starter)

A jet fuel starter (JFS) is a small turbo-shaft engine designed to drive a jet engine to its self-accelerating RPM. Rather than supplying bleed air to a starter motor in the manner of an APU, a JFS output shaft is mechanically connected to an engine. As soon as the JFS begins to turn, the engine turns; unlike Auxiliary Power Units, these starters are not designed to produce electrical power when engines are not running.

A Jet Fuel Starter has been designed and developed by Engine Division of HAL, Bangalore, especially to start the engine of Tejas on ground and in the air. Design optimization of rotating elements and shaft has been achieved by use of 3-D modelling, dynamic and stress analysis software to reduce weight of the JFS with the safe margin for shaft critical speed and element's resonance frequency as well as to reduce vibration and noise levels.

Also, dynamic balancing of entire rotating assembly to G2.5 as per the ISO 1940/1-1986 (E) has been carried out for reduction in unbalanced mass and vibration and noise level and to improve turbine volumetric efficiency through the controlled radial clearance between rotor and stator.

Salient Features

Type : Free turbine type
Power output : 110 kW
Max. Speed : 50500 rpm
Compressor PR : 3.5
Turbine inlet temp : 1150 K
Weight : 50 kg
Fuel : JET A-1/DERD 2494/F-35/IS 1571-85 or JP-5

General features

  • Twin spool
  • Centrifugal compressor
  • Reverse flow compressor
  • Axial gas generator turbine
  • Axial free power turbine
  • Digital electronic fuel control
Leading particulars

  • Engine air mass flow : 1.27Kg/Sec
  • Compressor pressure ratio : 3.7
  • Gas generator speed : 50500 rpm
  • Power turbine speed : 40000 rpm
  • Output shaft speed : 9750 rpm
  • Output power : 127 KW
Physical features

  • Length : 655mm
  • Diameter : 290mm
  • Height : 360mm
  • Weight : 54Kg

Utility systems management systems (USMS) and ECS​

Four LRUs are featured on Tejas , the environment control system controller (ECSC), Hydraulics, Engine and Electrical Monitoring System Electronics Unit (HEEMS-EU), Digital Fuel Monitoring System Electronics Unit(DFM - EU), and the Digital hydraulics and Brake Management system electronics unit (DH-EU), are combined into a dual redundant USMS. USMS caters to control and monitoring, data logging for fault diagnosis and maintenance.

Tejas Environment control and Fuel Management Electronic Unit (ECFM-EU) and a dual lane digital controller with resident software code, interfaces with the aircrafts ECS and manages the aircraft environment in terms of cooling and pressurization, the oxygen system, bleed air cooling pack temperature, ant icing, cabin temperature control as well as the cooling and pressurization of avionics bay, radar and sensors, engine bay ventilation, cabin sealing and wind screen demisting.

Bleed air is rounded from the 7th stage of the engine compressor at a maximum of 600c and 37 bars, following which , six heat exchangers and a cold air unit (CAU) reduce the temperature and pressure for use in the ECS. The entire system is designed for performance under the extremes of IAF operating conditions including tropical conditions. The controller LRU also operates and manages the fuel system and refueling operations.

The HEEMS EU , based on a 64 bit power PC-750 processor , operating at 500 MHz , manages and controls all hydraulic, engine and electrical systems as well as the secondary power system, starting system, and fire detection system . Other functions include engine accessory bay and under carriage system management, adaptive wheel brake management during takeoff and landing, and nose wheel steering management control.

Engine & fuel system​

The LCA is provided a total internal fuel capacity of 2486Kg with 1200Kg of fuel being stored in the wing tanks, 800Kg in the centre fuselage tank and around 486 Kg in the front tank, pressure at the wing tank being 49kpa. Two or three external fuel drop tanks of 800 or 1200 liters capacity, pressure 70 Kpa, may be carried under the wet hard points of the wing and the centre line to take the maximum fuel capacity up to 5297 liters. Fuel temperature is maintained between -54 d & 80 dC, maximum flow rate to engine at 6.4Kg/s

Power plant​



The F404-GE-IN20 engine is an enhanced production version of the F404, which is successfully powering India’s Light Combat Aircraft MKI. The highest thrust variant of the F404 family, the F404-GE-IN20 incorporates GE’s latest hot section materials and technologies, as well as a FADEC for reliable power and outstanding operational characteristics.

Dimensions\t\t: Diameter 890 mm, Length 3.9 m
Weights\t\t: Max Weight 1,035 kg (2,282 lb)
Engines Performance\t: Thrust 9,163 kg (20,200 lb)


GTRE GTX-35VS Kaveri

The GTRE GTX-35VS Kaveri is an afterburning turbofan project developed by the Gas Turbine Research Establishment (GTRE), a lab under the DRDO in Bangalore, India. An Indian design, the Kaveri was originally intended to power Tejas .Kaveri programme failed to satisfy the necessary technical requirements or keep up with its envisaged timelines and was officially delinked from the Tejas programme in September 2008.Decayed performance at high altitude, insufficient thrust, and excessive weight. Some of the problems the DRDO have reported on its Kaveri turbofan engine.

French company Safran agreed to help India revive its Kaveri combat jet engine project. Snecma, as part of the offsets deal for the 36 Rafale jets India bought for its air force, would handhold the Gas turbine and research establishment (GTRE), which has designed Kaveri, to fix gaps in its performance, address safety concerns, certify and fly it on a Tejas light combat aircraft. The Rs 600 odd crore expenses for Snecma, which powers the Rafale jets, would be adjusted against the 50 per cent offsets that it is mandated to spend in India.



Senior member
Dec 6, 2017
Republic of Wadiya



Any modern fighter is only as good as the weapons she can deliver on target. The Tejas is designed to carry a veritable plethora of air to air, air to surface, precision guided and standoff weaponry. In the air to air arena, the Tejas carries long range beyond visual range weapons, with highly agile high off-bore-sight missiles to tackle any close combat threat. A wide variety of air to ground munitions and an extremely accurate navigation and attack system allow it to prosecute surface targets over land or at sea with unparalleled accuracy, giving the Tejas true multi/swing role capability.

Tejas is missile-capable and once it is airborne can detect and shoot down enemy targets 120 km away; it can give close air support to the Army; it can do combat air patrol for six hours if refueled in air; it can do deep penetration roles day and night and in all weather; it has been tested to operate in Ladakh; it can carry nuclear weapons if necessary.

Seven weapon stations [plus a centerline hard-point] provided on LCA offer flexibility in the choice of weapons LCA can carry in various mission roles. Provision of drop tanks and in-flight refueling probe ensure extended range and flight endurance of demanding missions.

Air to Air -​

1. Astra

Astra is an active radar homing beyond-visual-range air-to-air missile (BVRAAM)developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), India. With the development of Astra India joined in a handful of countries like the US, Russia, France and Israel which have developed such sleek missiles capable of detecting, tracking and destroying highly-agile hostile supersonic fighters packed with ``counter-measures'' at long ranges.

The highly agile, accurate and reliable missile features high single-shot kill probability (SSKP) and is capable of operating under all weather conditions. Length of the weapon system is 3.8m, while its diameter is 178mm, and an overall launch weight is160kg. Its low all-up weight provides high launch range capability and the system's airborne launcher can be used with different fighter aircraft. It is intended to engage and destroy aerial targets with high manoeuvrability and supersonic speeds. The missile's advanced air combat capabilities allow it to engage multiple high-performance targets.

The missile guidance is provided by a terminal active radar-seeker and an updated mid-course internal guidance system, which locates and tracks targets. On-board electronic counter-measures jam radar signals from enemy radar, making tracking of the missile difficult. The ECCM (electronic counter-counter measure) features of the missile make it able to overcome almost any kind of jamming. It is designed to be capable of engaging targets at varying range and altitudes allowing for engagement of both short-range targets (up to 20 km) and long-range targets (up to 80 km).

It uses smokeless propulsion system to evade enemy radars and has the capacity to engage in multi-target scenario. Astra can reach up to 110 km when fired from an altitude of 15 km, 44 km when launched from an altitude of 8 km and 21 km when fired from sea level. A smokeless
The highly agile, accurate and reliable missile features high single-shot kill probability (SSKP) and is capable of operating under all weather conditions. It also has the capacity to engage in multi-target scenario.

Astra using HTPB (solid-fuel) as fuel. With this high-energy propellant, it has the capability to follow fighters which can do complicated maneuvers. HTPB is a non-metalized high-specific impulse propellant developed for the rocket motor. The missile's maximum speed is Mach 4.5+ and can attain maximum altitude of 20 km. The missile can handle 40 g turns near sea level while attacking a maneuvering target. It can be launched in both autonomous and buddy mode (a Su 30 MKI can launch the Astra from long range and a nearby friendly aircraft can update the missile to the correct path) operation and can achieve lock-on on its target before or after it is launched.

The dual-mode guidance consists of an upgraded mid-course internal and active radar terminal homing systems. It allows the Astra BVR missile to locate and track targets at different altitudes. The weapon system is equipped with a high-explosive pre-fragmented warhead that weighs 15kg. A radio proximity fuse (RPF) developed by HAL activates the warhead. This RPF weighs approximately 2.5kg and has a detection range of up to 30m, a detonation range of 15m and a missile target velocity between 100m/s and 1,600m/s.

2. Python-5

The Python-5 is currently the most capable air-to-air missile and one of the most advanced AAMs in the world. As a beyond-visual-range missile, it is capable of "lock-on after launch" (LOAL), and has full-sphere/all-direction (including rearward) attack ability. The missile features an advanced electro-optical infrared homing seeker which scans the target area for hostile aircraft, then locks-on for terminal chase. With a total of eighteen control surfaces and careful design, the resulting missile is supposed to be as maneuverable as any other air-to-air missiles with thrust vectoring nozzles. The Python-5 was first used in combat during the 2006 Lebanon War, when it was used by F-16 Fighting Falcons to destroy two Iranian-made "Ghods Ababil" Ababil UAVs used by the Hezbollah.


  • Length: 310 cm
  • Span: 64 cm
  • Diameter: 16 cm
  • Weight: 105 kg
  • Guidance: IR + electro-optical imaging
  • Warhead: 11 kg
  • Range: >20 km
  • Speed: Mach 4

3. R77

The Vympel NPO R-77 missile is a Russian medium range, active radar homing air-to-air missile system. The R-77 has the ability to engage multiple airborne threats simultaneously thanks to its fire and forget capability. There are other versions fitted with infrared and passive radar seekers instead of active radar homing. Future plans call for increasing the missile range well beyond 150 kilometers. Currently it has 80Km range. It has speed of 4 mach and can operate at altitudes as 25000 m high.

The R-77 has been designed with innovative control surfaces which are one of the keys of its impressive performance. Once launched, the R-77 depends on an inertial navigation system with optional in-flight target position updates from the aircraft sensors. When the R-77 missile is at a distance of about 20 km its radar homing head activates leading the missile to its target. The R-77's multi-purpose target engagement capabilities and resistance against countermeasures are among the best in the world. It is launched from AKU-170E launch unit aboard the aircraft.

The R-77 carries a 22.5kg multi-shaped charge rod type warhead. An inertial/radio-corrected navigation system guides the missile during the initial flight phase, while a multi-function doppler-monopulse active radar seeker is employed in the terminal phase.

4. R73

The R-73 is an infrared homing (heat-seeking) missile with a sensitive, cryogenic cooled seeker with a substantial "off-boresight" capability: the seeker can "see" targets up to 40° off the missile's centerline. It can be targeted by a helmet-mounted sight (HMS) allowing pilots to designate targets by looking at them. Minimum engagement range is about 300 meters, with maximum aerodynamic range of nearly 30 km (19 mi) at altitude

The R-73 is a highly maneuverable missile and mock dogfights between USAF and German Air Force MiG-29s (inherited from the former Air Forces of the National People's Army) equipped with the R-73/helmet mounted cueing have indicated that the high degree of "off-boresight" capability of the R-73 would make a significant difference in combat. The missile also has a mechanically simple but effective system for thrust-vectoring. The R-73 prompted the development of a number of western air-to-air missiles including the IRIS-T, MICA IR, Python IV and the latest Sidewinder variant, the AIM-9X which entered squadron service in 2003.

From 1994, the R-73 has been upgraded in production to the R-73M standard, which entered CIS service in 1997. The R-73M has greater range and a wider seeker angle (to 60° off-boresight), as well as improved IRCCM (Infrared Counter-Counter-Measures). Further developments include the R-74 (izdeliye 740) and its export variant RVV-MD. Russia currently receives new improved air-to-air missiles on the basis of the R-73.

Air to Surface​

1. DRDO Next Generation Anti-Radiation Missile NGARM

The DRDO Anti-Radiation missile is a tactical, air-to-surface anti-radiation missile under developement by Defence Research and Development Organisation. It is designed primarily to destroy enemy radars and communication facilities. Instead of thrust propulsion, the missile uses dual pulse propulsion system as in the case of LR-SAM. The dual pulse propulsion will widen the envelope as well as the engagement capability of the missile. The range of the missile is believed to be 100–125 km

2. Kh-59ME (TV-guided standoff missile)

Kh-59ME is an improved version of the Kh-59 standoff missile and was introduced in the early 1990s. It features two larger fragmentation and penetration warheads, minor airframe changes, and a new propulsion system for extended range. The missile can fly at altitudes between 7 and 1,000 meters. The nose-mounted TV-sensor relays target area imagery to the launch airborne platform and the pilot selects the impact point using the aircraft-mounted APK-9ME pod.

3. Kh-59MK (Laser-guided standoff missile)

The Kh-59MK airborne enhanced-range air-to-surface guided missile with the ARGS-59E active radar homing head is derived from the Kh-59ME missile with the TV/command guidance system. It is designed for engagement of a wide range of radar-contrast sea surface targets in both fair and adverse weather conditions at Sea States up to 6.
The design changes are substantial, with the original folding high aspect ratio canards replaced by a strake like cruciform canard stabiliser. The electro-optical seeker is completely replaced with a new Radar MMS developed ARGS-59E active radar seeker designed for attacks on shipping or other high radar contrast targets. Stated range performance for this variant is 285 km. The missile is fitted with a KTRV-Detal A-079E radar altimeter. It’s a fire-and-forget missile, equipped with either a 320 kg penetrating or 285 kg pellet warhead.


KAB-1500L laser-guided bombs
GBU-16 Paveway II
ODAB-500PM fuel-air explosives
ZAB-250/350 incendiary bombs
BetAB-500Shp powered concrete-piercing bombs
FAB-500T gravity bombs
OFAB-250-270 gravity bombs
OFAB-100-120 gravity bombs
RBK-500 cluster bomb stake

1. Kh-35

Kh-35U is a jet-launched subsonic anti-ship missile. The Kh-35 missile is a subsonic weapon featuring a normal aerodynamic configuration with cruciform wings and fins and a semisubmerged air duct intake. The propulsion unit is a turbofan engine. The missile is guided to its target at the final leg of the trajectory by commands fed from the active radar homing head and the radio altimeter.

Target designation data can be introduced into the missile from the launch aircraft or ship or external sources. Flight mission data is inserted into the missile control system after input of target coordinates. An inertial system controls the missile in flight, stabilizes it at an assigned altitude and brings it to a target location area. At a certain target range, the homing head is switched on to search for, lock on and track the target. The inertial control system then turns the missile toward the target and changes its flight altitude to an extremely low one. At this altitude, the missile continues the process of homing by the data fed from the homing head and the inertial control system until a hit is obtained.

The Kh-35 can be employed in fair and adverse weather conditions at sea states up to 5-6, by day and night, under enemy fire and electronic countermeasures. Its aerodynamic configuration is optimized for high subsonic-speed sea-skimming flight to ensure stealthy characteristics of the missile. The missile has low signatures thanks to its small dimensions, sea-skimming capability and a special guidance algorithm ensuring highly secure operational modes of the active radar seeker.

Its ARGS-35E active radar seeker operates in both single-and-multiple missile launch modes, acquiring and locking on targets at a maximum range of up to 20 km. New radar seekers, Gran-KE have been developed by SPE Radar MMS and will be replacing the existing ARGS-35E X band seeker

2. Kh-31

The Kh-31A is a high speed anti-shipping missile based on the Kh-31P airframe, but equipped with a new Leninetz RGS-31 active radar homing seeker. The design of the seeker is frequently credited to Radar MMS, its cardinal parameters are similar to the Radar MMS designed ARGS-35 in the SS-N-25 Switchblade and ARGS-54 in the SS-N-27 Sizzler. The missile is fitted with a KTRV-Detal A-069A radar altimeter, which operates at altitudes between 100 metres and 6,000 metres. The seeker can be locked onto the target before launch, or acquire the target post launch, to maximise operational flexibility. Active seeker head for use as an anti-shipping missile against vessels up to destroyer size, range of 25 km–103 km. Missile is sea-skimming as it approaches the target.

How fare is Tejas Compared to other Single engine fighters ?​

No, the Tejas isn't outdated; nor is it a poor, desi solution to what a desperate Indian Air Force needs. Tejas can match with any of the 4th Generation fighter in the world. RCS figure of Tejas is one of the finest in all the 4th gen fighters. Aerodynamics is second to none. How fare is Tejas against other single engine fighter’s find it out in the following sections.

In this section we are doing a quick analysis of Tejas with three dominant single engine fighters of this time Gripen, F 16, J10. Please note this is a rough comparison.

~Compared with J 10

The J 10 started off as a Chinese attempt at reverse engineering a Pakistan bought US F-16. However it ended up being a modification of Israel’s Lavi multi role fighter, Lavi program was cancelled in 1987 in Israel due to threatening from US. China purchased the blue print from Israel and developed J 10.

The detail of J 10 is hardly available. From the available data it’s very clear that Tejas is not inferior to J 10 . J 10 has advantage in weapon loads, range etc only because it is a bigger aircraft so J10 can carry more weapons.

Both aircrafts are pretty much maneuverable. One noticeable aspect of Tejas is its wing loading 247 Kg/m2 is much lower than the 381 Kg/m2 of J 10, which results in better agility. This low wing loading of Tejas gives better climb of rate & also gives good cruising performance cause it need less thrust to maintain the stable flight. This better climb rate is a give Tejas advantage in Himalayan regions. Heavier loaded wing is efficient in higher speed because it causes less drag but in overall performance level low wing loading offers better performance. Another advantage is a fighter with low wing loading can maintain better sustained turn rate (maximum turn an aircraft can achieve) aircraft with higher wing loading may have better instantaneous turn rate. So it is clear that in Himalayan regions a low wing loading Tejas can outperform a higher wing loading J 10 in most criteria’s.

Thrust to weight ratio of Tejas is 1.07, which is less compared to 1.15 of J 10. But it can be improved using a better power-plant. Overall the maneuverability is almost similar.

Both aircrafts are fitted with AESA radar, the capabilities of J10 B / J10 C is not available. According to some blogs “J10C is equipped with more advanced radar. It has a greater detection range than the J10 radar to simultaneously track 12 targets and against the ability of the six targets which pose the greatest threat” looks almost similar to Tejas AESA radar.

J 10C has better stealth features than J 10B. Chinese media calling it as a semi stealth fighter, but from our own research, it’s not going to be stealthier than Tejas, even though Chinese media claims it has a new technique to achieve stealth, and some of those claimed J10C is a threat to even F22. Whatever it is their comparison of J 10C with F 22 is laughable.

Overall Tejas can give tough competition to J 10B and is slightly inferior to J10C, Tejas Mk2 with better aerodynamics and more stealth features, can catch up with J10C.

~Compared to F 16

The F 16 has been a long used and studied by various air forces and their are a lot of counter strategies available against the airframe. It isn't stealth and does not have any substantiality robust EW capabilities. So I'm today's scenario F 16 is an outdated technology.

An analysis related to F 16's agility compared to HAL Tejas says that beyond high subsonic speeds the LCA provides better agility.

The F-16A/B has a generally higher performance engine than that used in the LCA with regard to fuel efficiency. As a result, it attains a higher range (1,930 km at 0 kg payload) versus the LCA (1,553 km at 0 kg payload) under similar conditions. As payload increases the LCA and the F-16A/B maintain this slight difference in range performance at high altitude.

In the horizontal plane STR, the LCA outperforms the F-16A/B at high Mach numbers and the F-16C/D under all Mach number regimes. The nimble LCA can out-turn an F-16A/B at higher Mach numbers and an F-16C/D by a significant margin at lower Mach numbers, which are encountered in a turning fight within visual range. As Mach number increases, the turn rates lower for the F-16 models at a faster rate than that for the LCA with a crossover point at Mach 0.65. At all higher Mach numbers, the difference in turn rates increases substantially once more. The LCA can also pull higher “gee” forces at high Mach numbers than the F-16A/B in the horizontal plane.

To read the complete analysis click on the button below.


~Comparison with Gripen​

The Gripen had been initially criticised for having an unsatisfactory safety record. But it was exported to many nations. The older variants of Gripen are all adjusted according to NATO standards. These aircraft are in true sense multirole. The Gripen E is an advanced 4++ gen variant of JAS 39 Gripen. It has a very impressive payload capability. An AESA radar and unmatched agility.

An analysis related to performance of various European fighters show that at close ranges and sustained flights the Gripen is even more manouverable than Sukhoi Su 35. The swedes actually claim it can kill Su 35. But Gripen isn't a completely indegeneous product of the Swedes. It has imported avionics and imported engine. It's safety record being quite unsatisfactory as it has seen 10 crashes with most of them blamed on glitches in flight control systems.

Excerpt ~

Simulation has the Gripen E shooting down the Su-35 at almost the same rate that the F-22 does. The Gripen E is estimated to be able to shoot down 1.6 Su-35s for every Gripen E lost, the F-22 is slightly better at 2.0 Su-35s shot down per F-22 lost. In turn the Su-35 is better than the F-35, shooting down 2.4 F-35s for each Su-35 shot down. The Su-35 slaughters the F-18 Super Hornet at the rate of eight to one, as per General Hostage’s comment. How that comes about is explained by the following graphic of instantaneous turn rate plotted against sustained turn rate.

To read the analysis related to Gripen's agility click on the button below.


The above mentioned analysis isnt a Solid Proof. The promised manouverability of Gripen is a question giving its limited engine thrust. The values of ITR and STR may not be considered completely true.


Tejas is a 4+ generation fighter which can give tough competition to any of the fourth gen fighters. Only Gripen NG has a considerable advantage over Tejas due to its superior avionics. After Tejas mk2 comes in Gripen won't also be invincible.

Future Development​


The MK2 is an improvement over LCA AF Mk1 with higher thrust engine. This aircraft will have improved survivability, maintainability and obsolescence mitigation. Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) Radar, Unified Electronic warfare Suite (UEWS) and On-Board Oxygen Generation System (OBOGS) are some of the state of the art technologies planned to be integrated. The cockpit design has been improved with bigger size, smart Multi function Displays (MFD) and smart Head Up Display (HUD).

The scope of FSED Phase 3 as per project sanction is as follows:-
Design, develop and build two aircraft with

New Engine
Necessary changes in the structure and systems to integrate the new engine
Weight reduction to improve performance
Unified EW Suite (UEWS)
Development of new DFCC, its test facilities and integration
Upgrade/modification/maintenance of test facilities.

Extensive studies were carried out at ADA to make suitable changes in LCA AF Mk2 to address the maintainability issues observed in LCA AF Mk1, improve the systems like fuel, landing gear and brakes, electrical, armament etc. Also a number of new/upgraded systems have been incorporated to make the aircraft more contemporary. As a result, the scope for FSED Phase 3 increased substantially due to extensive changes incorporated to have an improved aircraft with improved performance in all aspects. Important new/ upgrades of systems are listed below:

Introduction of 500mm plug in fuselage
Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) radar
On Board Oxygen Generation System (OBOGS)
New Cockpit with larger size smart displays
One Mission Management and Display Computer (MMDC) in place of two Open Architecture Computers
HMDS based on optical sensor
Smart HUD with improved Field of Vision
Higher power Jet Fuel Starter
Servo controlled Airbrake under the command of DFCC control
Pressurized Fuel System
Unified Pylon Interface Computer (UPIC) in place of individual Pylon Interface Boxes
Combined Interrogator Transponder (CIT)
Indigenous Actuators
NVG(Night vision Goggle) compatible lighting

Activities carried out

Presently, the configuration of LCA AF Mk2 has been frozen with all the design improvements and Preliminary Design Review (PDR) has been carried out in June 2014 and detail design is in progress. GE-F414 engine was selected as the higher thrust engine for LCA AF Mk2 and a contract was signed with M/s GE, USA in September 2012. The CDR of alternate engine has been completed. Engine is undergoing final qualification and lifting evaluation tests.


A number of aerodynamics improvements have been carried out to reduce drag and improve performance:
Drag reduction studies have been completed. Canopy reshaping, outer cowl modification, actuator fairing extension and supersonic pylons have resulted in approx 20 counts (8%) drag reduction in supersonic regimes.
Wind Tunnel studies have been completed.
Aero loads computations have been completed


Three doors AAID finalized.
BMI material developed for high temperature applications.
Composite pipelines developed for ECS.
Spine widened for providing accessibility and maintainability.
Pilot step provided for pilot's emergency egress.
SPS bay redesigned to improve maintainability.


Aircraft engine bay ventilation scheme has been finalised.
Engine-Airframe Interface Control Diagram (ICD) has been prepared.
Aircraft Qualification Tests have been completed. ASMET (Air c r a ft Simulated Mission Endurance Tests) results are under discussion.
New JFS with higher torque GTSU- 135 is under development.

Mechanical Systems

Layouts preparation and detail design is in progress.
Feasibility to increase wheel size for increasing the capacity of brake system are in progress.
Trials to offload one hydraulic system to reduce the load on JFS during starting are going on. This will help in cold weather high altitude operations.
Liquid Cooling System configurations, separate for AESA and UEWS have been finalised.
Studies to shift the Air to Air refueling probe to right are in progress to obviate probe coming in Field of View of Head Up Display (HUD).

Integrated Flight Control System

DFCC: CDR completed Realization st of QT unit by 31 Dec 2016.
Indigenous Actuators: Primary Actuators QT completed, Iron Bird testing completed. Being evaluated on LCA Mk1. Secondary Actuators under development.


Avionics architecture has been finalized.
New cockpit with bigger size (6”x8”) displays has been designed.
Development of new LRUs is in progress.
Avionics will be ready by Dec 2018.
Configuration of Active Phased Array based Unified Electronic Warfare Suite (UEWS) finalised.
The number of elements that can be incorporated with the existing geometry for the Antenna Array unit of AESA Radar has been finalised and performance parameters like range and Effective Radiated Power (ERP) computed.
Night Vision Goggl e (NVG) compatible L E D lights for Navigation lights and Taxi / Landing Lights are being developed. Engineering models have been developed. Performance is being evaluated.
Conformal antenna developed for V/UHF.

2. LCA Navy MK2

LCA Navy Programme to design and develop a Carrier Borne Fighter Aircraft was sanctioned in 2003 after the successful initial flight testing of LCA (Air Force) variant, Tejas. Two prototypes, a two seat Trainer (NP1) and a single seat Fighter (NP2) with more internal fuel have been developed in Phase-1 of the programme.

Phase-2 of LCA Navy Programme envisages development of two single seat Fighter aircraft with a new higher thrust engine (GE-F414-INS6) and further design optimization to reduce drag. LCA Navy MK2 would undergo weight reduction through a redesigned landing gear and associated structure and increased internal fuel as critical driving factors in its design. LCA Navy Mk2 will have enhanced mission performance and better maintainability.
Strengthening the LCA for carrier operations proved to be a nightmare for ADA. The fuselage of the aircraft has been broadened and the wing roots moved outwards. As a result, aircraft design has been optimized for supersonic flight with perfect conformance to area rule. (Tejas LCA and LCA Navy Mk-1 do not conform perfectly to area ruling resulting in high supersonic drag.)Mid section fuselage broadening allows undercarriage bays to be shifted outwards, allowing a simpler, straight and light undercarriage as in the Rafale. Mid section fuselage broadening also increases fuel capacity.

Indian Navy's Air Defence Ship, under construction. Launch speed over a 12 deg ramp is 100 kts; recovery speed during a no flare deck landing, using arrester gear, is 120 kts. Take off mass 13 tonne, recovery mass 10 tonne. Most stringent requirements are that the airframe will be modified: nose droop to provide improved view during landing approach; wing leading edge vortexes (LEVCON) to increase lift during approach and strengthened undercarriage. Nose wheel steering will be powered for deck maneuverability. The aircraft could carry a maximum payload of four tonnes and travel at a maximum speed of 1.6 times the speed of sound and at its slowest speed of 120 knots to 100 knots. The aircraft’s undercarriage (u/c) - required to perform flareless landings with a high sink rate of 7.1 rn/sec, - became grotesquely over-sized because of its positioning in the fuselage.

LEVCONs and new control laws will feature on the naval variant N-LCA, primarily being designed to operate from STOBAR aircraft carriers. The LEVCONS are two new CFD – optimized control surfaces that extend from the wing root leading edge and cater to better handling at low speeds, lower approach speeds, increased controllability at high AoA and possibly added nose pitch and optimized use of increased instability and added trim lift, as is the case with canards. No such feature is exists on any other aircraft in the world and even otherwise, the N-LCA is aerodynamically different when compared to the Air force version. Early N-LCA concepts also envisaged the use of two small nose canards for additional lift but wind tunnel tests ultimately proved them useless leading to their deletion. The N-LCA will also have strengthened airframe, fuel dump system, marginally reduced internal fuel (by about 200 Kg) , an arrester hook with damper and lengthened under carriage for more than double the strike rate of 3-5m/sec at 7-5m/sec.

GE’s F414-INS6 engine which will be used on Tejas MK-II aircraft is currently on schedule in development and testing. GE’s F414-INS6 engine includes a Full Authority Digital Electronic Control (FADEC) and added single-engine safety features. . Engine will also produce more thrust than previous versions

~ Current Status of N-LCA

The Indian navy never rejected N-LCA, actually it never said for sure it would accept N-LCA mk1, The N-LCA mk1 was supposed to be only fir testing purpose, Govt. of India sanctioned development of two LCA (Navy) Mk2 single seat Fighter prototypes (NP3 & NP4) under Full Scale Engineering Development (FSED) Navy Ph-2. The LCA (Navy) Mk2 is being designed primarily to provide air defence to the fleet onboard Carrier and meeting all the mission objectives set out by the Indian Navy. Significantly improved aircraft performance largely better than AF-Mk1 and integration of full suite of weapons are capabilities inherent in the design. Hope the new improvements will lead to the induction of N-LCA into Indian Navy.

The main contributors to improvement in LCA (Navy) Mk2 have been identified as higher thrust engine, an increased wing area, an area ruled and streamlined configuration, lighter landing gear and structure, and improved systems layout towards better safety and maintainability. Flight control features to reduce approach speed even with an increase of around 2.5 tons of Carrier landing mass is a critical capability over LCA (Navy) Mk1. System Requirements Review (SRR) with participation of Indian Navy (IN) was carried out in detail with requirements capture and document prepared.

Based on requirement to consider wing folding to overcome the aft lift interference on INS Vikramaditya, a Technical Note was prepared and submitted to IN. The note details rationale behind Wing outboard shift for LCA(Navy) Mk2. Issues in not opting for a wing fold and also restrictions in carrier take of mass if the wing is retained as in Navy Mk1 was brought out.

Design & Development Activities

Aerodynamics & Configuration:

Air Vehicle Configuration of LCA (Navy) Mk2 is a critical activity during the concept design phase. The major activities carried out are:

Numerical Master Geometry (NMG) V0.6L has been base lined for detail design

Improving performance in terms of low supersonic wave drag, acceptable cg limits for stability and control criteria for zero ballast design.

Optimized LEVCON & Shelf Flaps to achieve approach speed reduction for carrier landing.

LEVCON converted into an active surface permitting operations with higher instability to achieve improved agility and performance.

Ventral Airbrakes for performance with low interference

Air intake redesigned for bigger GEF414-INS6 engine, with lip and cowl profiles and auxiliary doors optimized for superior performance at low speeds for improved carrier launch capability.

1:10 scale low speed wind tunnel model fabricated at NAL and was tested in the HAL wind tunnel.

Wind tunnel data correlation study with CFD simulation carried out and found to match very well.
Based on the iterations carried out in configuration performance evaluation was also computed to arrive at optimum solution. The major activities undertaken are:

Installed performance estimation of new GE-F414-INS6 engine in LCA (Navy) Mk2 was carried out
A comparative study on performance with contemporary Naval aircraft was carried out and shared with IN.
Mission performance analysis for three IN profiles viz., Air Defence, Anti ship and Ground strike were carried out and has been established to meet the IN requirements. Maximum capabilities in various IN defined missions to bring out margins available have also been evaluated.

Flight Control System and Control Law

Preliminary Design Document for IFCS including IFCS Architecture released. Study of alternate configurations for Active LEVCON including Single / Multiple Linear Actuators was carried out. TEX flap introduced for reducing approach speed which would provide ~5 knots speed reduction. Usage of available Electromechanical / Electro hydraulic actuators for Shelf flap is under finalization.

Avionics & Weapon systems

The Avionics architecture of LCA(Navy) Mk2 is to be adapted from the LCA-AF Mk2. Navy specific features are to be implemented based on interactions currently in progress with Indian Navy. Feedback on AESA Radar and Communication interface has been received from IN. Network communications requirements has been sought from IN. Preliminary cockpit layout study for 19.8 Degree HUD has been carried out and feedback provided to CSIO, Chandigarh who are developing this LRU.

Studies for integrating Automatic Carrier Landing System (ACLS) have been initiated with participation of IN. Interaction with NEC, Mumbai, to capture EMI/EMC interface requirements on Carrier carried out.

Under development Technologies for LCA​

Development of critical advanced technologies for indigenous equipments and systems is in progress. Project sanctions for development of technologies have been given to identified work centers. The following project s has been completed;

  • DALIA actuators
  • Indigenous development of high strength titanium alloy Ti-10
  • Development of Friction Stir Waelding Technology for Aircraft Structures
  • Aerodynamic studies of performance of LCA wing with Vortex Generators
  • LCF data generation testing on 15-5 PH steel
  • Digital Communication Scheme for Tejas

On-going Projects

The following major projects have been initiated and are in progress

Development of V/UHF Conformal Antenna
Development of Digital Audio Control System (DACS)
Digital Liquid Oxygen (LOX) Indicators/ Transmitters
Development of improved RAM
Fatigue data generation on AA 7010 Aluminium alloy
Development of Zn-Ni plating as an alternate to cadmium plating
Development of high temperature beta titanium alloy DMR 700
Development of On-Board Oxygen Generation System (OBOGS)
Development of Cabin Shut Off Valve (CBSOV) of ECS,
Development of AMAGB Bearings
Advanced Subminiature Telemetry System,
Jet Fuel Starter (JFS) Mark 2
Development of MEMS based Pressure Transducers and temperature sensors for Hydraulics system.

Trainer variant of Tejas mk1

The Tejas trainer is a trainer version of India's mk1 variant. It is a twin tandem seat single engine fighter trainer. The trainer version is capable of doing all the war fighting duties that Mk1 variant is capable.

Generally a fourth generation fighter has a trainer variant where trainee pilot sits ahead and instructor sits behind. Pilot is exposed to near war like environment and high level G forces. But advanced simulators have made it possible these days to skip this step and make new pilot go directly on a solo training flight on a single seat aircraft. A lead in fighter trainer is still relevant. The trainer can be used to train pilots and can also be used in a combat. There are duplicated controls inside the cockpit for two seats. Where instructor can take control of aircraft whenever necessary or can correct any mistake done by pilot. The PV-5 and PV-6 were the first trainer variant prototypes. The NP-1 first naval prototype was also a twin seater. Most probably a twin seater version of Naval Tejas mk1 would be used to train fighter pilots to land on a carrier. The experienced instructor would sit behind while trainee sits forward and experiences the anxiety and adjustments done while landing on a carrier.

Most probably Tejas trainer program was developed to exploit the opportunity to do research as well as prove itself a nice option for foreign air forces. The FA 50 of Philippines falls in the same category.

Unmanned LCA

It was first in 2008 that a news came in that HAL would derive an unmanned variant of Tejas. Then in March 2017 it was massively reported that a team has already started work on the project to convert the LCA into a drone and India’s premier aircraft manufacturer Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) is confident that the project can be carried out within a short time frame.
“We have started an internal study on making a unmanned combat aerial vehicle (UCAV) on the Tejasplatform. Besides, we are confident on coming up with an unmanned version of Chetak helicopter as well,” HAL Chief T Suvarna Raju told ET.

Converting a semi stealth 4+ gen. fighter into a UCAV is quite feasible in India where the cruel environment of Himalayas have taken more lives of pilots than enemy fire power. Earlier conversion of a fighter into trainer has been done so that these fighters could be used as a target practice. Here the displays, the life support systems,the ejection seat and various other systems would be replaced by a large antenna that receives satellite navigation based commands. To operate a UCAV beyond line of sight of a ground based antenna, a robust satellite navigation is needed. Earlier only Americans had it so the developed predator drones. With an indigenous satellite navigation a flying high level unmanned bomber would killer.

India is already developing a stealth UCAV named Ghatak, but the load carrying capacity of such UCAVs is quite decent. The Tejas may be a light fighter but if converted into UCAV and judged by that standards Unmanned LCA would be a high capacity one.

The conversion of a full-fledged fighter system into an unmanned platform is an onerous task. Apart from the easier material changes, including removal of non-essential items (actuallynota simple task on the Tejas, as maintainability roadblocks have shown), the conversion of the Tejas — like Boeing’s conversion of the F-16 to the QF-16 — will involve major changes to the flight control system (FCS). The conversion will also involve the installation of a kill switch/flight termination system to make sure ground control can destroy the aircraft in flight and the addition of telemetry sensors and systems. But the centrepiece of the conversion will be the Tejas FCS. Because the current FCS is designed keeping in mind the health capabilities of a human pilots and intended to filter out human errors. The FCS would be completely new.

It would provide HAL a valuable amount of expertise in this field. It may also be converted into a live target practice drone. Generally a project is launched by agencies considering inputs and suggestions directly from officers of armed forces and analysts. It is not like just an idea is conceived to fulfill one man's flights of fantasy.

Operational Deployment​

No. 45 Squadron IAF Flying Daggers

Tejas inducted into No. 45 Squadron of Indian Air Force (IAF) on 01 Jul 2016. No. 45 Squadron, also called the "Flying Daggers", was last equipped with MiG 21 Bis Aircraft and operated from Nalia. It's motto is "Ajeet Nabha". The Squadron will operate from Bangalore for nearly two years before it moves to its designated location at Sulur near Coimbatore. It is the first fighter Squadron to be a part of the Southern Air Command of IAF headquartered at Thiruvananthapuram.

Why Tejas took 30 years ??​

We are not interested in giving any reason for why Tejas delayed. There are numerous reasons from lack of testing facilities; sanctions etc. But we are bringing your attention to how much time taken to develop other 4+ & 5th Gen aircrafts.
F22 – 25 years
F 35 – 21 Years and continuing
J 10 – 18 years (To materialize the blue print of LAVI)
Rafale – 30 years
Typhoon – 20 years (collaboration of Four Countries)

India is only the seventh country which developed a fourth generation fighter aircrafts its own. Tejas is a 4+ generation fighter plane; as state of Art and as sophisticated as any found in Western Europe, USA or any of the developed countries of the world. It is a manned fighter plane and born out of collaboration of NAL, Bangalore with 300 Indian industries, 40 Research labs and 20 academic institutions working together for almost fifteen years. Never has such broad based public-private collaboration happened on such a sensitive and high security project for the country. What’s more, our scientific and technology community achieved this despite US sanctions against us that were in place then. We knew what we wanted, but we had no idea how to proceed – each element of the design, each raw material for the plane had to be designed from scratch. It had to be highly agile, light, able to achieve supersonic speeds and yet sturdy.

How sophisticated Tejas is can be seen from the fact that it takes a millisecond (1/ 5th of a second) to react to a command and is therefore too fast for a human to control. Thus humans had to design computers who could take over once human beings (pilots) determine the course of action for the plane. Such facts make Tejas the fasted and smartest fighter plane of its kind in the world today. But this project that should be making Indians proud and enhance the reputation of our scientists’ worldwide is coming under a harsh scrutiny now.

Tejas is being manufactured – is found to be lacking in production facilities and skilled manpower. A fall out of Tejas project is that it has lead to development of many sophisticated ‘by-products’ that are today being exported by Indian companies to Israel, USA and Sweden, considered world leaders in such products.

Tejas time line​

DRDO got permission to initiate a programme to design and develop a Light Combat Aircraft.

Government of India set up Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) as the nodal agency developing the LCA and managing the programme.

IAF generated Air Staff Requirements (ASR) for LCA in October 1985.

Government allocated Rs. 575 Crores for the LCA programme.
Programme to develop an indigenous power plant (engine) - Kaveri was launched at GTRE.

Project definition commenced in October 1987 with French aircraft major Dassault Aviation as consultants.

Project definition phase completed in September 1988.

Government review committee expressed confidence in LCA programme. It was decided that the programme will be implemented in two phases.

1990 - 1999
Design of LCA was completed as a tail-less compound delta winged relaxed static stability aircraft.
Phase 1 (Technology Demonstrator) of the development was commenced to create the proof of concept.

Full funding approved from April 1993 and development work for Phase 1 started in June.

First technology demonstrator, TD-1, rolled out on 17th November.

Multi-Mode Radar (MMR) for LCA design work started at HAL Hyderabad division and LRDE.

4th January - the historic first flight of the Technology Demonstrator TD-1 marking a new era in the aviation history of India. Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee named LCA – "Tejas" meaning Radiance in ancient Indian language Sanskrit.

6th June - TD-2 made her successful maiden flight.

Tejas crossed the sonic barrier for the first time
25th November - PV-1 made her successful maiden flight.

1st December - PV-2 made her successful maiden flight.

1st December - PV-3 flew for the first time for 27 minutes at an altitude of 2.5 km and at a speed of Mach 0.8. PV-3 was equipped with a more advanced pilot interface, refined avionics and higher control law capabilities compared with the previous versions.


25th April - The first Limited Series Production LCA (LSP-1) made her first flight and reached a speed of Mach 1.1 in the very first flight.
PV-2 and PV-3 underwent sea-level trials at INS Rajali Naval Air Station, Arakkonam to study the effects of flying at sea-level, as all earlier trials have been conducted at Bengaluru which is 3,000 feet (910 m) above sea-level. The reliability of the LCA systems under the hot and humid conditions, as well as low level flight characteristics was tested.

7th September - Tejas Prototype Vehicle (PV-1) made a successful flight with two external drop tanks of 800 Ltrs capacity

25th October - Tejas PV-1 fired R-73 (CCM) missile for the first time. The trials were conducted off the Goa coast at INS Hansa Naval Air Station.

11th December - LITENING targeting pod was successfully tested on Tejas PV-2.


28th May to 4th June - LCA Tejas prototypes PV-2 & PV-3 underwent hot weather trials at Air Force Station, Nagpur.
16th June - Tejas second Limited Series Production LCA (LSP-2) made its first flight.

7th November - LCA Prototype Vehicle-3 made first successful night flight.

13th December - PV-3 and LSP-2 completed the high altitude test at Leh, world's highest operational airfield.


22nd January - Tejas completed 1000 flights.
October - PV-3 and LSP-2 completed air-to-ground weapons delivery trials.

26th November - Two seater (Trainer) version of Tejas (PV-5) made its maiden flight on 26 Nov 09.

7th December - Tejas speed envelope expanded to 1350 km/h (CAS) while performing flight flutter test in a dive to near sea level. These tests were conducted at INS Hansa, Goa.

2010 - 2019

6th June - TD-2 made her successful maiden flight.

23rd April - LCA Tejas LSP-3 made maiden flight. LSP-3 is close to the final configuration including the new air-data computers.
Multi Mode Radar, new communication and navigation equipment and radar warning receiver. With this the LCA programme has completed 1350 test flights logging about 800 flying hours.

2nd June - First Flight of LCA Tejas LSP-4. Flight. In addition to the LSP-3 standard of preparation, the aircraft also flew with the Countermeasure Dispensing System.

19 November - First Flight of LCA Tejas LSP-5.


10th January - Certification for the Release to Service.


9th March - The Tejas Light Combat Aircraft, LSP-7 accomplished its maiden flight from HAL Airport in Bengaluru
on 9th March 2012

29th April - The Naval version of the Indian Light Combat Aircraft Tejas, made its maiden flight from the HAL Airport in Bengaluru. This was a significant milestone in the history of Indian Aviation in designing a naval variant of a fighter aircraft.


22nd February - The LCA took part in the Iron Fist Exercise in Pokhran, Jaisalmer

31st March - The Tejas Light Combat Aircraft, LSP-8 accomplished its maiden flight from HAL Airport, Bengaluru

20th December - Initial Operation Clearance - 2
Indian Defence Minister Mr. A.K. Antony handed over the "Release to Service Document" of the country’s own Light Combat Aircraft to The Chief of Air Staff Air Chief Marshal NAK Browne.


1st October - First Flight of LCA Tejas SP 1 - The first Tejas Light Combat Aircraft from the batch of 20 ‘series production’ or full-fledged fighters flew for about 25 minutes in Bengaluru. The flight of ‘SP1’ was piloted by HAL’s Chief Test Pilot Air Cmde K.A. Muthanna(retd). The First Flight of SP1 was achieved within nine months of receiving the penultimate flight worthiness certification, called IOC-2 (initial operational clearance) in December 2013.

8th November - LCA Tejas PV-6 (Prototype Vehicle 6), a final configuration two-seater trainer aircraft, successfully completed its maiden flight at the HAL Airport in Bengaluru.

20th December - Maiden Ski Jump of LCA NP-1 - The first prototype of the light combat aircraft (LCA) Tejas Naval version - LCA NP-1 completed its maiden flight as part of the carrier compatibility tests at the shore-based test facility in Goa.

17th January - IAF gets first indigenously-built Light Combat Aircraft Tejas - The LCA Tejas Series Production-1 (SP1) was handed over by Defence Minister Mr. Manohar Parrikar to Indian Air Force Chief Air Marshal Arup Raha in Bengaluru on Saturday.

7th February - The Second Prototype of the Light Combat Aircraft, the NP-2, flew her maiden flight on 7th February 2015 from HAL Airport in Bengaluru. Piloted by Capt. Shivnath Dahiya (Indian Navy), the aircraft performed flawlessly in the first-flight


21st - 23rd January - India's indigenous Light Combat Aircraft Tejas for the first time participated in an International Air Show in Bahrain, an event witnessed by External Affairs Minister of India Smt. Sushma Swaraj.
The display of India's defence technology comes at a time when the government is giving a strong push to its flagship 'Make in India' programme.

18th May - IAF Chief Arup Raha has his first sortie in LCA Tejas; says it’s a “good aircraft” for induction
Indian Air Force (IAF) chief Arup Raha on18th May 2016 had his first sortie in the Light Combat Aircraft (LCA), after which he called it a “good aircraft for induction”. “It is my first sortie in Tejas, it is a good aircraft for induction into IAF operations,” Raha said.

1st July - Historical day for India: First squadron Inducted into the IAF
Hindustan Aeronautics Limited handed over the first two Tejas aircrafts to Indian Air Force which will make up the 'Flying Daggers' 45, the name of the first squadron of the LCA.

August - Leh - High Altitude and Hot Weather Trials
The Tejas Trainer PV-6 (KH-T-2010) underwent High Altitude and Hot Weather Trials in Leh. Along with the machine, the men responsible for the activities also gained more experience by the harsh weather conditions.

8th October - LCA Tejas Makes Debut Appearance At 84th Air Force Day Celebrations
India's Light Combat Aircraft Tejas performed at the 84th Air Force Day Celebrations amid Loud Cheers from the audience at the Hindon Air Force Base on the outskirts of New Delhi. Rising up to the expectations to the theme of this year's IAF Day "MAKE IN INDIA"

8th November - The Ministry of Defence gives clearance for 83 LCA Tejas MK1A


26th January - LCA Tejas made its debut at the 68th Republic Day parade
LCA Tejas made its debut at the 68th Republic Day parade. Three Tejas aircraft participated in the fly-past

Greatest Achievement of Tejas program.​

What’s the most important thing to develop a technology/ product? Different peoples have different opinions some may say money, someone may find human resource is the most important thing. Yes all these are very important but one thing stood up above all these that is the research and test facilities; these are the most important thing to develop anything.

The biggest thing is that Tejas created the ecosystem for aviation in India. Earlier there was no ecosystem for aviation in India. There was HAL and nobody else. Now it is HAL, 500 industries, 40-50 laboratories, 20 academic institutions and it is a big network. It is no longer one or two people working or one DRDO lab working or NAL working. It is a network. This ecosystem that we have created through LCA is a great thing.

Through Tejas India got wind tunnel test facilities, anechoic chambers, simulators etc etc . Some of the major test facilities achieved through Tejas are following.

~ Major test facilities built for LCA

Engineer In Loop simulator at NAL

Real time control law design simulator with excellent real world visuals
Rapid prototyping tool for Tejas handling qualities optimization
Simulator has been used to develop and integrate the six degrees of freedom DoFs model; all the critical subsystem models of Tejas such as primary actuator nonlinear models complex undercarriage model, etc.

Structural coupling test facilities at HAL

Provides necessary instrumentation and control for conducting the structural coupling test on the Tejas aircraft
Provides adequate data for notch filter design to avoid control structure interaction and for flight clearance towards aircraft structure.
Computer controlled VXI and GPIB based automatic test equipment

IFSC Evaluation Facility at ADA

Real-time, ground based test facility equipped with state of the art air data test station air data test system flight dynamics simulator engineering test station portable avionics test station data acquisition and analysis and storage systems

Developed for Tejas IFCS evaluation with air data computers.

Real avionics LRU interfaces with DFCC in open-loop mode.

Automated test facility for enhanced throughput with minimal human intervention.

Dome Based Real Time Simulator

Simulator for pilot in loop evaluation of control law for handling quality assessment.
Inner surface of the 9mdiameterdomeis used as the projection screen.
6-channel projection system configured using high endgraphics card.
Geometrically-corrected, edge-blended, seamless projection of the imagery on dome surface.

Mini Bird Test facility at ADA

Real-time, hardware in loop and engineer in loop ground based test facilities for carrying out hardware software integration.

Provides capability to drive the DFCC OFP either through the control of engineer pilot or through the canned inputs from the host computer.

Hydraulic rig provides interface between DFCC and actuators Visual display provided in the cockpit.

Iron bird-1 & iron Bird-2 test facilities

Real-time hardware in loop and engineer/pilot in loop ground based test facility for Tejas IFCS evaluation.
The ironmongery is similar to Tejas fighter structure and all FCS actuators are mounted and hydraulically powered.
Tejas single pilot cockpit simulated avionics system under carriage and nose wheel system are also coupled in the rig.
Engineering test station to interface with DFCC and to inject failures and flight dynamics simulator to simulate the flight.
A host of data acquisition analysis and storage computers.

Sub system integration system integration performance verification of air data system and control law pilot -in loop normal failure mode and fault free tests and built in tests for IFCS are carried out.

Virtual Reality Environment

ADA also built a virtual reality environment for Tejas. ADA won’t need to develop the actual aircrafts to check its design with the use of virtual reality (VR), 360 degree immersible software, simulators, and mock-up displays ADA can check every single detail of the aircraft.

Shore Based Test Facility – INS Hansa

The SBTF is primarily used for flight testing of naval aircraft that operate from aircraft carriers. Only four countries in the world have SBTF or LBTF; they are China, India, Ukraine / Russia and the United States. The SBTF has two parts including the Take-off Area with a ski-jump facility and the Landing Area with arresting wire facility, both of which are a replica of INS Vikramaditya. This is also being replicated onboard India’s first indigenous aircraft carrier Vikrant being built at Kochi.

General Characteristics​


• Max speed Supersonic at all altitudes
• Service Ceiling 50,000 ft
• ‘g’ Limits +8/-3.5


• Span 08.20 m
• Length 13.20 m
• Height 04.40 m


• Take-off Clean 9800 kg
• Empty 6560 kg
• External Stores 3500 kg

Special Features

Compound Delta Planform
Relaxed Static Stability
Composite Structure
Fly-by-wire Flight Control
Computer based monitor and control of Electro Mechanical Systems
Glass Cockpit
Multi-Mode Radar

External stores

Air-to-air Missiles
Air-to-ground Missiles
Anti-ship Missiles
Laser Guided Bombs
Conventional Bombs
GSh-23 Gun
Drop Tanks


Optimized Structural Design considering strength, buckling and aero-servo-elastic requirements for carriage of heavy external stores

Design for manufacturing and assembly (DFMA)

90% of wetted surface area is made of Composites.

Co-cured composite Fin, Co-cured and co-bonded trouser duct and engine bay door made of high temperature composites.

Indigenously developed metallic materials and processes like large size aluminium alloy forgings, control stretched extrusions, maraging steel and PH stainless steel

Avionics and weapon System

Advanced Glass Cockpit with High Performance Graphics to Support Situational Awareness, Decision Support and Data Fusion

Dual Redundant Open Architecture Mission and Display Computer

UML Based Modeling, IEEE-12207, ADA-95 On-Board Flight Certified Avionics Application Software

Computer Controlled Utility System and Management System (USMS)

Helmet Mounted Sight, Multi Mode Radar, Litening Pod and Radar Warning Receiver

Digital Weapon Management System Compatible to Russian, Western and MIL-1760C Weapons

Single Avionics Application Cater to Multiple Variants of Aircrafts

Well Proven Air-to-Air, Air-to- Ground Attack Modes
General Systems

Major Mechanical System includes

Microprocessor Controlled Brake Management System

Environment Control System

Fuel System

Nose Wheel Steering System

Landing Gear System

Hydraulic System

Secondary Power System

Life Support System

Escape System

Integrated Flight Control System

State-of-the-art Full Authority Quadruplex Digital Fly-By-wire Flight Control System

Fault Tolerant Digital Flight Control Computer with built-in Redundancy Management

Fail Operational, Fail Operational, Fail Safe DFCS and Fail Operational, Fail Safe Air Data System

Robust Control Laws for Stability and Command Augmentation, Carefree Manoeuvring, Autopilot Control and Ski Jump Functionalities

Advanced Flight Control Actuators incorporating both Hydraulic and Electrical Redundancy

Range of Ground Based Test Facilities for Integrated Flight Control System Development, Handling Qualities Evaluation, Non-Real Time Tests, Real Time Simulation, Hardware-in-loop Simulation, Structural Coupling Tests, Lightning Test, Ground Check out Systems and Flight Test

Test Facilities equipped with State-of-the-art Flight Dynamic Simulator, Engineering Test Station, Air Data Test Station, High End Projection Systems, Data Acquisition, Analysis and Storage System

Propulsion Systems

Propulsion System consists of

• Engine – GE-F404-IN20 for LCA Mk1, GE-F414-INS6 for LCA Mk2
• Jet Fuel Starter (JFS)
• Engine Health Monitoring Electronic Unit
• Engine Parts Life Tracking and Management System (Net enabled Ground Stations)
• Engine maintenance shop and Engine Test Facilities

• Completion of Propulsion Systems flight test points for Full Operational Clearance (FOC)
• Demonstration of high angle of attack capability, and altitude up to 15 km.
• Demonstration of in-flight relight capability
• Demonstration of operation from high altitude, cold weather conditions at Leh, Ladakh.
• Impeccable maintenance record of Engine and Jet Fuel Starter
• Engine Integration activities of GE-F414-INS6 in LCA Mk2 on schedule
• Portable Engine Maintenance Test Facility under development

~ Conclusion​

So friends this was our 21st century wonder. Many websites carefully hide the plus points and report other challenges as a negative point in an order to create a picture in the minds of people that Tejas isn't a good aircraft. Friends making a fighter aircraft is no joke. You have seen on your own that development if many small systems need development of laboratories, which were not available at first place. These labs developed for LCA's systems have already reduced the time needed to make AMCA.

Tejas is contemporary 4+ generation fighter that can take on any aircraft of Pakistan Air Force and any single engine fighter in PLA-Air Force. The mk2 version of Tejas would be matchless.

Content Sources / References

Official Website of DRDO, HAL, NAL, CSIR , DRDE, CEIMILIC
Delhi Defence Review
Trishul Trident Blog
Defence Blog
Indian Defence Forum
Some private sources in HAL
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Senior member
Dec 6, 2017
Republic of Wadiya
I think 60% by value , and approx 70% by the number of parts is local.

The Martin Baker and the engine is one where it seems we are totally dependent.

The radar and the weapons suite we will get there soon. The avionics, mission computers, self protection system , hopefully will be fully local very soon.
IMO we should focus on mission critical technologies like Jet engine, radar, BVR and WVRAAM, smart munitions and SOWs, Radars,EOTS, Protective and deceptive jamming systems and EWS components and not to forget latesy designing and manufacturing technology including radar signature reduction technologies.
Frankly ADA, DRDO, HAL have too much going on to venture into commercially available things like Ejection seats, MFDs, canopy etc which lets just say are not sensitive and that mission critical and frankly requires lots of money and experience to master.
We are running 4 (5 if you include consider mk1) fighter jets development projects of three different categories and three different generations. Only one of which is present physically on the ground, rest can be called vapourware and are only on silicon chips and A4 size paper diagrams.
We need to fasten things up otherwise Chinese will not wait us for initiating a war just like 72. They are desperate to show off their might and what’s better than a ill equipped neighbor that is slower than sloth and dumber than a panda.

Aditya b7777

Active member
Nov 30, 2020
Radar , radome , IFR probe will be indigenised soon .

Engine , Ejection seat , Canon - wiil be totaly dependent on foriegn suppliers .

SDR , MFD - no idea about any homegrown substitute .
Canon is made by OFB, BEL and SAMTEL make the MFDs for various aircraft. SDR will be the Israeli one as IAF has already invested a lot fitting it on various aircraft in high numbers so no point adding a different one.


Senior member
Nov 30, 2017
Why Tejas? It didn't even cross the sanctioned budget.
Look at the specifications of the Tejas MK 2, it's practically the same as the Mirage 2000, and yet you're using a foreign engine that's much more efficient than that of the Mirage 2000. Of course the electronics are newer and therefore more efficient, but that's not the most difficult thing to do. And do you know when this project started? I was at Dassault in the late 1980s and there was already a consulting contract to help the Indians design their next aircraft.
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Senior Member
Nov 30, 2017
Look at the specifications of the Tejas MK 2, it's practically the same as the Mirage 2000, and yet you're using a foreign engine that's much more efficient than that of the Mirage 2000. Of course the electronics are newer and therefore more efficient, but that's not the most difficult thing to do. And do you know when this project started? I was at Dassault in the late 1980s and there was already a consulting contract to help the Indians design their next aircraft.

Actually, the IAF's requirements are to match the M2000's performance. ADA's goal is to exceed the M2000. We just don't know how much they want to exceed it by.

The LCA Mk2 is merely a modernisation of Mk1, quite literally an addition of 2 plugs to increase the length. And the Mk1 finished its design stage only in 1987. It's nowhere near modern designs. Regardless, Mk2 will have Rafale class RCS, 9000-hour airframe, and many times lower maintenance downtime than the M2000. So, even if the Mk2's performance matches the M2000's, which is impressive anyway, the airframe is still more than half a generation ahead. The Mk2 also comes with a conventional payload design that's future-proof. It's capable of carrying bigger BVR missiles than the MICA.

I'd actually say that there's not a single 4th gen aircraft in the world that's changed as much between its baseline model to its current model than the LCA has. It turned from practically a Mirage III++ to a M2000++ in a very short period. The closest that comes to it is the Hornet to SH conversion, but even that comes with tradeoffs, whereas the LCA Mk2 betters the Mk1 by a significant amount in every single metric. And this is from a first-time designer.

Anyway I thought you were talking about going over-budget. The LCA has been under its sanctioned budget the whole time.


Senior Member
Dec 4, 2017
If you have a problem, I would point out that for the NGF demonstrator, which is the SCAF fighter, we are going to develop an M88 with 11 t of thrust. That should get you out of trouble just in case !
Would France sell those engines if India requires it ? Frankly it's proprietary state of the art technology .


Senior Member
Dec 4, 2017
If somehow HAL is having a few extra resources left, better to focus them on LUH , Twin seater LCA, HTT40, etc.

If IAF has not asked , and HAL is doing this then HAL should be held accountable.
Obviously HAL has been asked to prepare for contingencies mostly by the MoD. Why would HAL take the initiative ? I'm more interested in how exactly is this going to fit in . Would it be a drop fit or would it require extensive modifications ? How long would the testing take ?
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Team StratFront
Dec 1, 2017
If somehow HAL is having a few extra resources left, better to focus them on LUH , Twin seater LCA, HTT40, etc.

If IAF has not asked , and HAL is doing this then HAL should be held accountable.

I don't think this is for India or for said reason. The program is far ahead for the IAF for any of this to work. Also, any tinkering with the Tejas program will have serious repercussions in the Indo-US trust matrix. The US can say good bye for the next 50 years to the Indian defence market.

More likely, this is being done to test whether this is feasible for future exports. I mean really into the distant future. If any country is a no go for American engines, then there is an alternative. Though, I would assume it makes more sense to fix the Kaveri with M88 core and offer. Of course this is an uneducated guess. No other reason.

For the IAF, this will be dead in the water.
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