Indian Space Program: News & Discussions

Gautam

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ISRO’s new series of heavy-lift rockets to carry between 5-16 tonnes to GTO

Written By: Sidharth MP
WION, CHENNAI
Published: Sep 14, 2021, 09:51 PM(IST)
View attachment 20958
GTO is an intermediary orbit(180km at its closest point to earth and 36,000km at its farthest point from earth) in which rockets place heavy satellites. Photograph: WION.

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Speaking at a virtual event organised by ISRO and CII, N Sudheer Kumar, Director, Capacity Building Programme Office, ISRO, revealed that variants of this new fleet of heavy-lift rockets would be able to place a payload weighing anywhere between 4.9 tonnes and over 16 tonnes in the tonne synchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO).

To attain total self-reliance in the launch of heavy satellites (weighing above 4 tonnes) and to meet future demands, the Indian Space Research Organization is working on a fleet of five new rockets. According to a senior official, the five Heavy-lift Launch Vehicles (HLV) are in their project report stage.

In terms of design and appearance, this new fleet of rockets would be quite similar to the existing SSLV, PSLV and GSLV and GSLV Mk3 rockets, but they would be powered by even more capable, powerful and technologically advanced engines. Presently, India pays and utilises the services of Ariane-5, a foreign rocket, to launch satellites that weigh over 4 tonnes.

Speaking at a virtual event organised by ISRO and CII, N Sudheer Kumar, Director, Capacity Building Programme Office, ISRO, revealed that variants of this new fleet of heavy-lift rockets would be able to place a payload weighing anywhere between 4.9 tonnes and over 16 tonnes in the tonne synchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). This is an enormous improvement over the current maximum lift capability of 4 tons that the GSLV Mk3 rocket has performed to GTO.

GTO is an intermediary orbit (180km at its closest point to the Earth and 36,000km at its farthest point from the Earth) into which heavy satellites are launched by rockets. After being placed in GTO, the satellites use their onboard propulsion to reach a circular orbit 36,000 km above the earth (it is at the same distance from the earth at any given point of time). Being in the 36,000km circular orbit (also known as Geostationary or GSO orbit) allows for communication and monitoring of a large portion of the Earth. three satellites in GSO orbit are capable of covering nearly the entire globe.

According to Kumar, the work to upgrade the lift capability of GSLV Mk3 to 7.5 tonnes to GTO, is on the verge of being concluded. This major upgrade to India’s rocket is being made possible owing to the development of two kinds of rocket engines: a semi-cryogenic engine that burns a special variant of kerosene (dubbed ISROsene) and liquid oxygen; and a cryogenic engine that burns a mixture of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen. The said semi-cryogenic engine stage is dubbed as the SC120, and the upgraded cryogenic engine stage is dubbed as the C32. As per ISRO’s naming convention for rocket stages, the letter (s) refers to the type of engine fuel-Solid (S), Liquid (L), Semi-cryogenic (SC) and Cryogenic (C) and the accompanying number refers to the mass (in tonnes) of propellant carried. Simply put, a rocket is a combination of multiple engines (stages) that are vertically stacked.

"Soon the stage will be inducted into the rocket, then we will not depend on foreign sources for the launch of heavy communication satellites (weighing over 4 or 5 tonnes)," Kumar said. Regarding ISRO’s ongoing projects, he outlined that work was underway on the full-scale model of the Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD), besides work to scale up the proto-model of the air-breathing engine. For ISRO, these are crucial technologies to master to develop a fully reusable space vehicle dubbed the "TSTO," or Two Stage to Orbit.

The Director of ISRO’s CBPO also shared the configuration of the fleet of five heavy-lift rockets that were in their project report stage. The configurations refer to new and more powerful rocket stages-SC400 semi-cryogenic stage, the C27 cryogenic stage, and S250 solid rocket booster. Simply put, depending on the type of mission, payload to be lifted and rocket required, different variants of engines would be stacked vertically to run a relay race to space. Each stage would detach from the rocket after propelling the rocket to a certain altitude and speed, then the next engine would take over. This process goes on until the satellite (payload) reaches its final orbital destination.

In terms of materials, ISRO is said to be working on developing carbon-carbon composites, ceramic matrix composite for reusable vehicles, metal-foams for crash landing interplanetary probes, besides crucial components such as solar panels, fibre optics Atomic clocks, deployable antennas, lithium-ion batteries, Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) and Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) Devices.

ISRO’s new series of heavy-lift rockets to carry between 5-16 tonnes to GTO
It is all very confusing at the moment. The photo posted with the article shows the older configuration. This is the newer one:
1631771648258.png

I have heard of 4 different cryo upper stages being made so far.

C32 : Under prototype testing phase. For augmenting the GSLV Mk-3
C34: As shown above
C27: In the older configuration as shown in the article.
C90: For a SHLV

They were all to be powered by the CE-20 engine. Now there are 2 new Methalox engine being built, they are not as powerful as the CE-20 but are going to be clustered. The Methalox will likely replace the CE-20.

I have seen 4 different semi-cryo 1st stage so far:

SC120: Under prototype testing. For the GSLV Mk-3 augmentation. One SCE-200 engine.
SC160: Don't know what for. Probably one SCE-200 engine.
SC200: For HLV. 5 SCE-200 engines clustered.
SC400: For HLV & SHLV. 5 SCE-200 engines clustered together.
 

Gautam

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Some updates on other missions:

Aditya L1 solar observatory will be launched in Q3 of 2022 by a PSLV.
1631771796301.png


XPOSAT observatory will also be launched in Q3 of 2022. the launch vehicle will be the new SSLV ! SSLV hasn't had its 1st developmental flight yet. The D1 mission is scheduled for next month. D2 will be a commercial mission for launching 4 American satellites in early 2022. So the 3rd flight will be the XPOSAT.
1631771812745.png


Some microgravity experiments by colleges/universities.
1631771837118.png
 

Gautam

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More confusion......

ISRO to experiment vertical landing of rockets, aims to make GSLV Mk3 reusable
By Sidharth MP
Sep 16, 2021, 16:21 PM IST,
1631895451339.png


ISRO is aiming to recover the first two rocket stages of the GSLV Mk3 as this would imply a huge cost-advantage and savings, owing to reusability.

Chennai: The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is conducting studies and mini-projects to enable the vertical landing of its rockets. According to senior officials, this possibility is being explored primarily with regards to the heavy-lift rocket GSLV Mk3, which is powered by three stages of engines - solid-fuel, liquid-fuel and cryogenic fuel.

ISRO is aiming to recover the first two rocket stages of the GSLV Mk3 as this would imply a huge cost-advantage and savings, owing to reusability.

At present, all of ISRO’s rockets are expendable, which means that the rocket stages separate from the vehicle and fall into the sea after their stipulated burn time. Reusability involves recovering the rocket’s stages at sea or on land (vertical landing) and refurbishing, servicing, testing and qualifying them before flying again.

Dr. VT Baskar, Project Director of ISRO’s GSLV Mk3 had outlined the work on reusable rocket projects during an interaction helmed by Dr. S. Unnikrishnan Nair, Director of ISRO’s Human Spaceflight Centre. Themed ‘Human Spaceflight and Space exploration missions’, this session was part of a 3-day virtual conference organised by the Confederation of Indian Industry and ISRO.

On the cost-cutting measures ISRO was undertaking with regards to rocket launches, Dr. Baskar said that recovering the first and second stages (S200 solid-fuel rocket boosters, and L-110 liquid-fuel stage respectively) would offer a lot of cost advantage.

“Studies and Centre-level mini-projects are approved for landing experiments. We have to develop enabling technologies such as the capability to safely land a winged-body or large-body,” he said. More importantly, he added that the critical experiment to land rockets on their legs (vertical landing) would be carried out this year or in the next year (2022).

Elaborating on the major modifications that are in store for the GSLV Mk3 rocket, Dr. Baskar said that the vehicle’s L110 stage would be replaced with a semi-cryogenic engine and its C25 cryogenic engine would be replaced by the C32 engine. Besides replacing the existing engines with powerful counterparts, ISRO would also be working on mini and microelectronics to reduce the avionics mass and also use high-strength composite materials for the rocket motor casing.

On the timelines for the upgrade, he said that mini electronics and C32 Cryo engine were immediate targets, whereas the semi-cryogenic engine and composite material rocket casing were expected in 2-3 years.

Throwing light on ISRO’s upcoming exploratory and science missions, Dr. S. Unnikrishnan Nair, Director, Human Spaceflight Centre said that two missions - Xposat and Aditya L1 were likely to be launched in the second and third quarter of 2022, respectively.

“Aditya L1 is a space-based observatory that will be placed in a halo orbit near the Lagrange point which is an ideal place to observe the Universe being 1.5 million km from earth. Xposat is X-Ray Polarimeter satellite to study the Polarization of Cosmic X-Rays. It is going to be launched by SSLV, which is a small rocket that will have a development flight by this year-end,” he said. He added that Chandrayaan 3 - India’s third Lunar mission - was also getting realised.

ISRO to experiment vertical landing of rockets, aims to make GSLV Mk3 reusable
 

Parthu

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🤫 shush

VEDA.jpg


FAI3i4MWYAIfMPg.jpg


I had previously written quite a bit about the requirement for a solid-fueled TEL-based Satellite Launch Vehicle* capability to quickly re-establish at least a limited satellite-based capability set in the event of existing long-term satellites being disabled/destroyed by hostile action in space. I had anticipated that this capability will be derived from the SSLV rocket being developed by ISRO - did not expect the defence agency DRDO (which builds missiles) to take this program forward.

Which is just as well, because from the looks of it, the VEDA seems to have a lot in common with the PDV Mk-2 ASAT missile in terms of form factor. This may allow for not only TEL-based all-terrain mobility, but perhaps also canisterization (with pre-determined satellite payloads) - likely to be a significant tactical advantage over similar concepts being explored by China like the Kuaizhou-11:

photo_2021-09-25_20-35-45.jpg


With modern Hall thrusters and their Xenon fuel, traditional liquid-fueled motors (which would have prevented such long-term storage options) are no longer necessary even for Orbital Maneuvering (up to a point anyway).

* 2019 - A Big Year For Indian Military in Space

* The Future of Indian Orbital Rockets - Strategic Frontier

Thanks to GODOFPARADOXES on Twitter for finding the information about this new development.

@Gautam @Ashwin @randomradio @BMD
 
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Chain Smoker

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View attachment 21148

View attachment 21149

I had previously written quite a bit about the requirement for a solid-fueled TEL-based Satellite Launch Vehicle* capability to quickly re-establish at least a limited satellite-based capability set in the event of existing long-term satellites being disabled/destroyed by hostile action in space. I had anticipated that this capability will be derived from the SSLV rocket being developed by ISRO - did not expect the defence agency DRDO (which builds missiles) to take this program forward.

Which is just as well, because from the looks of it, the VEDA seems to have a lot in common with the PDV Mk-2 ASAT missile in terms of form factor. This may allow for not only TEL-based all-terrain mobility, but perhaps also canisterization (with pre-determined satellite payloads) - likely to be a significant tactical advantage over similar concepts being explored by China like the Kuaizhou-11:

View attachment 21147

With modern Hall thrusters and their Xenon fuel, traditional liquid-fueled motors (which would have prevented such long-term storage options) are no longer necessary even for Orbital Maneuvering (up to a point anyway).

* 2019 - A Big Year For Indian Military in Space

* The Future of Indian Orbital Rockets - Strategic Frontier

Thanks to GODOFPARADOXES on Twitter for finding the information about this new development.

@Gautam @Ashwin @randomradio @BMD
Can it launch multiple sats at same time.
 

Parthu

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Wasn't he saying that the VEDA is based on the Agni ? The PDV Mk-2 was based on the K-4

That's subject to launch adapters. It can be done. But it might lower the total payload to orbit.

i'm finding similarities in form factor with both Agni and K4. Will wait for details to emerge.

One thing stays the same either way though - its a solid-fuel booster.
 

Gautam

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AstroSat-2: ISRO Mulls Developing Next Generation Astronomy Satellite

By PTI
BENGALURU
Updated: September 28, 2021, 18:51 IST
1633147302968.png

Schematic of Astrosat-1 with the sensors identified. Pic Credit: ISRO.

The Indian Space Research Organisation is exploring the possibility of developing a next-generation astronomy satellite, an official indicated on Tuesday. ISRO's first mission dedicated for astronomy, AstroSat, launched on September 28, 2015 with its design life of five years, on Tuesday completed six years of its operation.

"It (AstroSat) is expected to last some more years", A S Kiran Kumar who as the then Chairman of ISRO led the mission team, and is presently serving as the chair of the apex science committee at the space agency, told PTI. "We can expect some more results to come which will be path-breaking", he said.

Asked about the possibility of ISRO launching AstroSat-2, he said: "Not AstroSat-2. Next generation…thinking is going on…depending on how planning happens…follow-on to this (AstroSat) in a different manner are being looked at".

According to ISRO officials, data from AstroSat is widely utilised for the study of various fields of astronomy, from galactic to extra-galactic and from users from all over the world. The multi-wavelength space observatory, which has five unique X-ray and ultraviolet telescopes working in tandem, had detected extreme-UV light from a galaxy, called AUDFs01, 9.3 billion light-years away from Earth.

The discovery was made by an international team of astronomers led by Dr. Kanak Saha, at the Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA), Pune and reported in 'Nature Astronomy'. This team included scientists from India, Switzerland, France, the USA, Japan and the Netherlands. AstroSat has also observed for the very first time rapid variability of high energy (particularly >20keV) X-ray emission from a black hole system, officials noted.

"AstroSat has been a very successful mission and it has produced results which are globally acclaimed…", Kiran Kumar said. "Large number of papers have also got published".

AstroSat-2: ISRO Mulls Developing Next Generation Astronomy Satellite
 

Gautam

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ISRO lines up 3 Earth Observation Satellites with key indigenous technologies

By Chethan Kumar / TNN / Updated: Oct 2, 2021, 23:11 IST


The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), which has had a negligible year so far as launch missions go, is hoping to launch 3 Earth Observation Satellites (EOSs) in the last quarter of 2021.

While two of them — EOS-4 (Risat-1A) and EOS-6 (Oceansat-3) — will be launched using ISRO’s workhorse PSLV, the third one, EOS-2 (Microsat), will be launched in the first developmental flight of the Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV), marking the beginning of a new class of launch vehicles in India.


ISRO has completed SSLV Payload Fairing (SPLF) functional qualification test successfully and other testing activities are in progress. EOS-4 was to be originally launched in September, sources in ISRO said, adding that the review committee had not cleared the satellite, which postponed the launch.

ISRO chairman K Sivan told TOI: “The plan is to achieve those launches by the end of this year, but since we would be using some key indigenous systems like TR module, TWTA and circulators as part of our endeavour to reduce imports, we will be carrying out extensive tests to find if there are any technical issues. This may take some time.”

TR modules refer to transmit and receive modules that help in telemetry and tracking of the satellites, while TWTA (Traveling Wave Tube Amplifiers) are commonly used in satellite communication links, earth observation payloads, scientific missions or probes, inter-spacecraft communications links etc.

As reported by TOI in March, ISRO has been looking at indigenising various technologies aimed at reducing imports.

New Model

Further, Sivan said that the launch of EOS-4 would also mark the beginning of a new model for ISRO as intended by the space reforms initiated by the Centre.

“...Earlier, we had a supply driven model. After ISRO made a satellite, we offered it to ministries and government agencies. Now, even ISRO is looking at a demand-driven model. From the next satellite, we will be doing this,” he said.

The three satellites that the space agency is planning to launch are meant for ministries like agriculture, home affairs, earth sciences and environment and forests.

Unlike communication satellites where the entire capacity could be demanded by one customer, a single Earth observation satellite can simultaneously cater to multiple customers as the data generated by these satellites can be analysed for different uses.

isro: Isro lines up 3 Earth Observation Satellites with key indigenous technologies | India News - Times of India
 
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Gautam

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ISRO’s commercial arm to launch its first demand-based communication satellite next year

The entire satellite capacity on-board GSAT-24 will be leased to DTH services provider Tata Sky, NewSpace India Limited (NSIL) has said

By: Express News Service | Bengaluru | Updated: October 2, 2021 7:12:37 pm
1633232634180.png

NewSpace India Limited (File Photo)

NewSpace India Limited (NSIL), the newly created commercial arm of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), will put together its first demand-based communication satellite for the satellite-based DTH television services provider Tata Sky.

The GSAT-24, a 4,000 kg class Ku-band satellite with all transponders dedicated for DTH services, will be launched by the Ariane-5 from Europe’s Arianespace early next year. “The entire satellite capacity on-board GSAT-24 will be leased to its committed customer M/s. Tata Sky for meeting their DTH application needs,” an NSIL statement said Friday.

The satellite will be owned and operated by NSIL, which will also be the intermediary agency between ISRO, Arianespace and Tata Sky.

NSIL, which has been created to commercialise research work and capabilities of the ISRO, is looking to emerge as an Indian communications satellite operator by taking over ISRO satellites to provide DTH and broadband services to customers on demand.

In March this year, the officials of NSIL – incorporated in 2019 – had stated that two deals were in the pipeline with a DTH operator and a broadband service provider in India.

NSIL officials had said on March 12 that it will take over two communication satellites to be launched by ISRO and is in talks with the space department to take over ISRO’s fleet of communication satellites. “Shortly, NSIL will finalise requirements for new satellites in consultation with various users and start procuring, owning, launching and providing services, primarily in the communication sector. We are also in an advanced stage of discussion with DoS to take ownership of two new communication satellites,” NSIL Chairman and MD G Narayanan had stated.

“NSIL now has a much bigger responsibility of owning the satellites – which is identifying a satellite, getting it launched and owning it to provide services. This is a major service that NSIL is looking to offer. This will make us a kind of a satellite operator,” its Director (technical and strategy) D Radhakrishnan had said then.

The move is a shift from existing policy in which transponders on communication satellites are leased to customers like DTH service providers through ISRO’s existing controversial commercial arm Antrix Corporation which has now started taking a back seat. Antrix Corporation has previously courted controversies over deals in which satellites were dedicated to provide communication services for companies like the Bengaluru startup Devas Multimedia Pvt Ltd.

In an ongoing legal battle with Indian authorities in the US, Devas Multimedia has alleged that NSIL has been created to replace Antrix Corporation in order to circumvent liabilities arising from compensation awards made against Antrix Corporation by international arbitration tribunals over a failed 2005 Devas Multimedia-Antrix satellite deal.

The move to get NSIL to own and operate ISRO’s communication satellites is an effort to maximise profits from satellite launches and to allow ISRO to focus on “advanced research and development”, NSIL officials have said.

“Earlier we were supply-driven and now we are demand-driven and the basic thing is that there should be an identified customer who is going to fully utilise the satellite capacity and there should be good profitability. We want to ensure maximum utilisation of a satellite,” the NSIL official said.

Narayanan said the new firm is also in talks with the space department to take over all existing ISRO communication satellites. “We are in discussions to take over all 26 of them,” he said. While the demand for satellites for DTH services comes from providers like TataSky, Sun Direct and so on, the demand for satellites for broadband services comes from Indian telecom operators, NSIL officials said.

After successful fulfilment of its first deal for launch of a commercial satellite on February 28, 2021 – the Brazilian Amazonia-1 satellite on board ISRO’s PSLV rocket – NSIL will have four more commercial launches over the next two years, NSIL had said in March. The company has been provided a budget of Rs 700 crore for the next five years to emerge as a premier space services provider, the officials said.

ISRO’s commercial arm to launch its first demand-based communication satellite next year
 
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Gautam

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Cryo arms of the Second Launch pad are being augmented to handle the C32 stage. The current cryo arms are inadequate.
1633707910181.png


Augmentation of the Second Launch Pad for making it capable for the C-120 stage.
1633708092108.png


So far we know HAL has delivered cryogenic tanks for the C32 stage & the SC120 stage. The SC120 fuel tanks has probably been supplied as well. As I have detailed in post #907 of this thread, ISRO has a payload growth plan for the GSLV Mk-3 :
1633710033226.png


According to the plan the next 2 flights of the GSLV Mk-3 i.e. flights M2 & M3 will be in the standard configuration of the GSLV Mk-3. There will be payload increase in those missions but that will be through weight, aerodynamic & materials optimization. The M4 flight will be the 1st flight for the SC-200 engine & the M5 will be the 1st flight for the C32 stage.

The M4 flight will be of the Gaganyaan-2 unmanned capsule flight which is scheduled for Q4 of 2022 or Q1 of 2023, M5 flight is for the GSAT-20 satellite in mid 2023. So there is about 1 year of time remaining before the SC-200 flies for the 1st time.

Shouldn't we be seeing ground tests by now ? From satellite pics the new semi-cryogenic test stand at Mahendragiri looks complete. There is some work remaining in the viewers gallery but that shouldn't effect engine tests.

Today TOI's space journalist Chethan Kumar tweeted this :


Please God let this be about the SC-200 test.
 

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UAE could explore India's low-cost launch vehicles to liftoff small satellites | Exclusive

Minister of State for Advanced Technology and chairperson of UAE Space Agency Sarah Al Amiri, in an exclusive conversation with indiatoday.com, said that the two nations are looking at a wide variety of scientific cooperation.

By Sibu Tripathi
New Delhi
October 27, 2021; 12:10 IST

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) could use low-cost launch vehicles developed by the Indian Space and Research Organisation (ISRO) for lifting off its small satellites.

In an exclusive conversation with indiatoday.in, Sarah Al Amiri, Minister of State for Advanced Technology and Chairperson of UAE Space Agency, said that the two nations are looking at a wide variety of scientific cooperation in the space sector.

"We spoke during the International Astronautical Congress (IAC) with ISRO, looking at different aspects that are important to both countries. ISRO provides a low-cost launch capacity that we would like to explore for smaller satellites launching out of UAE," the UAE Space Agency chief said.

Source: UAE could explore India's low-cost launch vehicles to liftoff small satellites | Exclusive

Interesting idea, launching Indian rockets out of the UAE. Other than the Rohini family of sounding rockets, building rockets in India & sending them to the UAE is not a very feasible idea. Forget the PSLV or GSLV, even the SSLV wont be a feasible. Only possible alternative is to manufacture them in the UAE. Well.....I don't know what to say.

Besides, UAE's geographical location is not very favorable to space launches. Rockets would have to do multiple dog-leg maneuvers to avoid populated area & other countries.
 

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Source: UAE could explore India's low-cost launch vehicles to liftoff small satellites | Exclusive

Interesting idea, launching Indian rockets out of the UAE. Other than the Rohini family of sounding rockets, building rockets in India & sending them to the UAE is not a very feasible idea. Forget the PSLV or GSLV, even the SSLV wont be a feasible. Only possible alternative is to manufacture them in the UAE. Well.....I don't know what to say.

Besides, UAE's geographical location is not very favorable to space launches. Rockets would have to do multiple dog-leg maneuvers to avoid populated area & other countries.
I personally don't trust Arabs. We need to have enough influence on the Arabs if we want to tackle the Turks. And we need to bring them under our security architecture. Problem is we don't think like the Americans when we want to extend our security architecture. UAE, Oman are extremely good candidates to expand Indian power projection in the Middle East. But we need enough trust in the emiratis. Question is how?
 

Tatvamasi

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I personally don't trust Arabs. We need to have enough influence on the Arabs if we want to tackle the Turks. And we need to bring them under our security architecture. Problem is we don't think like the Americans when we want to extend our security architecture. UAE, Oman are extremely good candidates to expand Indian power projection in the Middle East. But we need enough trust in the emiratis. Question is how?
What does trust have to do with a commercial deal? We have a ~$50 billion trade deficit with china. Is that because we trust them?
 
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TARGET

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What does trust have to do with a commercial deal? We have a ~$50 billion trade deficit with china. Is that because we trust them?
Agree, We need money for our defense R&D ...We can easily sell 10 Launch vehicles using our private industries also we can give placement to our Indian scientists in UAE ...we almost touched the saturation level in solid rocket motor better to earn some money for the country . Make it a WIN-WIN proposal
 
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Union Minister Dr.Jitendra Singh says, 27 satellite missions and 25 launch vehicle missions were successfully accomplished during the last five years

Says, 286 commercial satellites from domestic as well as foreign customers and 8 student satellites from Indian universities were also launched in the last five years

Union Minister of State (Independent Charge) Science & Technology; Minister of State (Independent Charge) Earth Sciences; MoS PMO, Personnel, Public Grievances, Pensions, Atomic Energy and Space, Dr Jitendra Singh said that a total number of 27 satellite missions and 25 launch vehicle missions were successfully accomplished during the last five years (i.e., April 2016 – March 2021).


In reply to a question in the Lok Sabha today, the Minister informed that in addition, 286 commercial satellites from domestic as well as foreign customers and 8 student satellites from Indian universities were also launched during the aforementioned period.


DrJitendra Singh said that some of the major space missions include first operational flight of India's heavy lift launch vehicle GSLV Mk-III which placed India’s second lunar mission, Chandrayaan-2 into orbit; Advanced Cartography satellite, Cartosat-3; completion of NavIC constellation; launch of South Asia Satellite; launch of heaviest and most-advanced high throughput communication satellite, GSAT-11 and launch of record 104 satellites in a single PSLV flight. Apart from these, three technology demonstrators namely Scramjet engine, Re-Usable Launch Vehicle and test for Crew Escape System were also successfully demonstrated during this period, the Minister added.


DrJitendra Singh said that the Department of Space has charted out short-term and long-term plans in the areas of Space Transportation Systems, Satellite Communication & Navigation, Earth Observation, Space Sciences & Planetary Exploration, Capacity Building and Space-based applications.