Indian Air Force : Updates & Discussions

RISING SUN

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Navigation course valedictory held at Air Force Station in Hyderabad
The valedictory function of 93rd Advance Navigation Course (ANC) and 125th Ab-Initio Navigation Course was organised at Navigation Training School (NTS), Air Force Station Begumpet here on Saturday.
Air Vice Marshal R Radhish, Commandant, College of Air Warfare was the chief guest and Air Commodore CK Kumar, Air Officer Commanding, Air Force Station Begumpet and others from the station were present on the occasion.
In his welcome address, Group Captain Sanjeev Kumar, Commanding Officer of Navigation Training School commemorated the successful completion of both the courses. Chief Navigation Instructor Wing Commander AK Yadav presented the course reports for both the courses.
The graduating course of 93rd Advance Navigation Course comprised three officers including two from Indian Navy and one from Indian Coast Guard. These officers would be stepping out as instructors and take up instructional assignments in their respective services. Meritorious Flight Cadets of the 125 Ab-Initio Navigation Course were also awarded with trophies, medals and certificates. The Flight Cadets, who have completed their training at NTS, would be commissioned as Officers into the IAF during the Combined Graduation Parade to be held at Air Force Academy, Dundigal on Dec 16.
NTS is one of the prestigious training institutions of the Indian Air Force that has been training Flight Cadets to become Navigators in operational flying squadrons and imparting advanced navigation skills to select Navigators of the Indian Air Force, Indian Navy and Indian Coast Guard and train them to become Qualified Navigation Instructors for last seven decades, according to a press release.
Navigation course valedictory held at Air Force Station in Hyderabad
 

RISING SUN

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Emergency landing for MiG-21 at city airport
A MiG-21 of Indian Air Force (IAF) which was on its routine sortie had an emergency landing at the Jaipur airport when the team of two pilots realized some technical snag.

Both wished to land at Jaipur airport and after getting permission from the air traffic control, the aircraft landed at the Jaipur airport. Engineers of the IAF will repair it so that it can fly to the next destination on Sunday.

According to authorities, the aircraft landed safely at Jaipur airport. "It had some technical snag and the pilots asked us about landing it at our airport at 3.15 pm on Saturday. Their team will arrive in Jaipur on Sunday to repair the aircraft. Presently, the aircraft is stationed at the airport," said a senior officer of air traffic control on Saturday.

According to the sources, MiG-21 was on its routine sortie from Gwalior to Jaisalmer.

Authorities said that despite the snag the pilots managed to get a safe landing at the airport.
Emergency landing for MiG-21 at city airport - Times of India
 
F

Falcon

Emergency landing for MiG-21 at city airport
A MiG-21 of Indian Air Force (IAF) which was on its routine sortie had an emergency landing at the Jaipur airport when the team of two pilots realized some technical snag.

Both wished to land at Jaipur airport and after getting permission from the air traffic control, the aircraft landed at the Jaipur airport. Engineers of the IAF will repair it so that it can fly to the next destination on Sunday.

According to authorities, the aircraft landed safely at Jaipur airport. "It had some technical snag and the pilots asked us about landing it at our airport at 3.15 pm on Saturday. Their team will arrive in Jaipur on Sunday to repair the aircraft. Presently, the aircraft is stationed at the airport," said a senior officer of air traffic control on Saturday.

According to the sources, MiG-21 was on its routine sortie from Gwalior to Jaisalmer.

Authorities said that despite the snag the pilots managed to get a safe landing at the airport.
Emergency landing for MiG-21 at city airport - Times of India


Interesting to watch the video at #1 and this .... anecdotal
 

Rakshit

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A rare HD video of Indian Air Force. Shot in Athens. We need to do this more often. Will motivate the youth of the country to join IAF.
 
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ashkum2278

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BLUE FLAG 2017 AND BEYOND

by S. Samuel C. Rajiv



A 45 member Indian Air Force (IAF) contingent took part in the multilateral air exercise ‘Blue Flag 2017’ held at the Uvda Air Base in southern Israel from November 2-16, 2017. This was the first time that an IAF contingent has participated in air exercises with the Israeli Air Force (IsAF). The other participating nations were France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Poland and the United States. While France was also a first time participant, Germany was an observer at these biennial exercises in 2015.



The IsAF touted Blue Flag 2017 as the ‘largest international aerial training exercise in Israel’s history’ whose goal was to ‘simulate extreme combat scenarios and coalition flights as realistically as possible’. The Indian participation involved the state-of-the-art Super Hercules C-130J Special Operations transport aircraft and Garud commandos. All the other participating nations took part with fighter aircraft. The Greeks, Poles and Americans brought the F-16 while the French, Italians and Germans brought the Mirage 2000 D, the Tornado and the Eurofighter Typhoon, respectively. The C-130 is a familiar platform to all the participating nations, with a majority of them operating the aircraft (Germany is set to induct the aircraft beginning from 2019).



The absence of fighter aircraft in the Indian contingent could possibly be due to a range of reasons including the need to establish comfort levels before ramping up participation in the next round after two years. Further, the platforms deployed also correspond to the objective of the participation, which, in the present case, was obviously focused on the training of the Garud commandos. In the Indian context, with anti-terrorist operations being a priority for the security forces, the exercise was an important occasion to gain lessons from the Israeli experience. An additional factor could be the issue of over-flight clearance for fighter aircraft from countries in the region that do not have diplomatic relations with Israel.



Blue Flag 2017 adds an important layer to the matrix of bilateral defence cooperation, which has encompassed import of niche technology and equipment, Staff talks, reciprocal visits of chiefs of armed forces, port visits by ships of the Indian Navy, among other interactions. It remains to be seen whether the IAF’s participation in Blue Flag 2017 would lead to future bilateral air exercises on Indian soil. To be sure, both India and Israel participate in bilateral/multi-lateral air exercises with a limited number of countries. India in fact began exercising with other air forces beginning only from 2003, when Garuda I was conducted with France.1 For India (as indeed for most air forces), key operational variables that determine the frequency of such exercises have included finite resources in terms of equipment and budget and focus on internal exercises.



Over the past three years, India has conducted bilateral air exercises with France (June 2014), Russia (August-September 2014; first time ever air exercises were conducted with Russia), United Kingdom (July 2015), UAE (June 2016), Singapore (November-December 2016), Oman (January 2017), Thailand (May 2017) and Sri Lanka (July 2017), apart from participating in the multilateral Red Flag exercises in the US in April 2016. The varied combat platforms that took part in these exercises included fighters, aerial refuellers and transport aircraft, based on the objectives of each exercise.



For Israel, the US is obviously its most significant bilateral exercise partner. US-Israel bilateral military exercises also include missile defence, counter-terrorism, urban warfare, and naval exercises in the Mediterranean. European Command (EUCOM) is the lead US combatant command that partners with the Israel Defence Forces (Older Forum) in a majority of these exercises. The other significant ‘air partners’ for Israel include Italy, Greece and Romania, each of which presents unique opportunities for the IsAF to further hone its skills.



The mountainous topography of Romania, for instance, has been touted by the Older Forum as an important factor for conducting bilateral exercises in that country, specifically as it relates to the training that helicopter crews can gain in search and rescue operations. One of the attractions for Israeli participation in the Red Flag exercises in the US or with the Italian Air Force in Sardinia, apart from the varied nature of the exercises themselves, is the distances involved in getting to the exercise location in the first place and the large air spaces available for training.



For Israel, the Blue Flag exercises are an important effort to enhance its military diplomacy footprint and provide an opportunity for its pilots to train in a multi-lateral setting in their own air space. The IsAF, in fact, began these multi-lateral air exercises ostensibly in response to being denied permission by Turkey to take part in the 2009 Anatolian Eagle air exercises after Israel’s Cast Lead military action in Gaza. Reports, however, note that Israel has since been allowed to resume its participation in these exercises after forging a rapprochement with Turkey.



Israel also takes part in multilateral air combat exercises with countries like Pakistan and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Israel, Pakistan and four other countries participated in the 2004 edition of Anatolian Eagle held in Turkey. Israel, Pakistan and UAE took part in the US Red Flag exercises in August 2016. Israel, along with the UAE and US, participated in ‘INIOHOS 2017’ held in Greece. While being cognizant of the fact that the choice of countries invited to participate is the prerogative of the host and most of the interaction takes place through host country coordination, it is interesting to note that Israel has taken part in air combat exercises in a multilateral setting with participating countries with which it does not even have bilateral diplomatic relations.



Certain limiting factors, though, could continue to constrain the nature and scope of India-Israel air exercises. India, for instance, has so far not conducted multilateral air exercises in its air space. In case the possibilities of undertaking bilateral exercises are to be explored, the IsAF will have to address the challenge of zeroing in on the optimum route to reach air bases in India, given the distances involved.



Further, Israel’s lack of diplomatic recognition in the region stretching from Saudi Arabia to Pakistan complicates the operational dynamics of the deployment of combat platforms. IsAF’s training purposes are met adequately by exercising with countries like Italy or Greece (apart from the US), which operate similar American aircraft like the F-16. Nevertheless, India’s first ever participation in multilateral air exercises on Israeli soil undoubtedly builds on the path-breaking visit of Prime Minister Narendra Modi to Israel in July 2017.



S. Samuel C. Rajiv is Associate Fellow at the Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses, New Delhi

Blue Flag 2017 And Beyond – Analysis
 

Seiko

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Training Over, India's First 3 Women Fighter Pilots Fly MiGs And Hawks

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Yesterday, two women from the second batch to enter the fighter stream of the Indian Air Force were commissioned after graduating from the Air Force Academy, Dundigul. Flying Officers Pratibha and Shivangi Singh have completed their basic flying training and will now train further on Hawk Advanced Jet trainers before being posted to the Indian Air Force's fighter squadrons.

A third woman pilot, trainee Rashi Raina, was injured after she ejected from a Kiran trainer late last month near Hyderabad. She survived with a fractured leg and could not graduate as fighter pilot yesterday. Her future as a potential fighter pilot remains uncertain presently.



Flying officer Pratibha and flying officer Shivangi Singh were commissioned yesterday.

During Air Force Day in October 2015, then Air Chief Marshal Arup Raha had said, "We have women pilots flying transport aircraft and helicopters, we are now planning to induct them into the fighter stream to meet the aspirations of young women of India".

"I have no doubt that women will be able to overcome any physical limitations to become fighter pilots," he had added.


Training Over, India's First 3 Women Fighter Pilots Fly MiGs And Hawks
 
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RISING SUN

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India set to pack a punch on its enemies with Meteor missile

The missile can take down enemy planes from long distances. They will start coming to India from 2019.

The Meteor beyond-visual range missiles are set to bolster India's air defence.


The Meteor missile, which is coming along with the Rafale combat deal signed by the Narendra Modi government, will help reestablish the aerial supremacy of the Indian Air Force against their rivals in Pakistan and China.
India has bought a package of the European Meteor missiles along with the Rafales and may prove to be game changers due to their beyond-visual-range striking capability of close to 150 km, security forces sources have told Mail Today.
The sources said that till the Kargil war and a few years after that, the Indian Air Force had complete superiority over the Pakistan Air Force as it did not have any beyond-visualrange missile fitted on their F-16s or the Chinese supplied planes.
The Meteor missile was not part of the Rafale deal that was being done by the UPA government but when Modi decided to go in for an emergency procurement of the Rafale planes from France, the Air Force desired to include the Meteors as part of the weapons package.
During the Kargil war, the Indian side had two beyond-visual-range missiles which included the French S530D and the Russian RVV AE missile which deterred the Pakistanis from using its fighter plane fleet in the Kargil war with India, the sources said.
"The over-arching consideration was the BVR missile capability of IAF fighters which impinged unfavourably on the mission success probability," former Pakistan Air Force officer Air Commodore Kaiser Taufel had written in his blog about the war.
However, the situation changed after the Pakistanis were supplied the AIM120-C5 beyond-visualrange missiles which had the capability of taking out enemy planes at 100 km and were fitted on their F-16s.
This somewhat changed the balance in terms of aerial superiority over the skies of South Asia, but with the Meteor coming in now, we can again say that we would be able to completely dominate in terms of air-to-air battle with aerial adversaries, the sources said. The sources said even the Chinese don't have any proven air-to air missiles that can be launched from any of their fighter planes.
"One good thing about the Meteor is that it has not yet been integrated with any American-origin aircraft and the Pakistani F-16s or the Chinese-origin JF-17s can't get them in the times to come as well. The possibility of the Chinese integrating them is also ruled out," a source said.
India is currently going to get the missiles with the Rafales that it has procured but has plans of integrating these missiles on the Russian Su-30 combat planes, which are due for an upgrade in the near future.
India and Russia are discussing the possibility of carrying out an upgrade of the early batches of the Su-30MKIs, which were inducted in the late 1990s and early 2000s and may cost India over Rs 25,000 crore.
The Meteors have been getting tested in the French Air Force Rafales since 2015 and the campaign was completed last year.
The Indian Air Force has contracted for 36 Rafale planes under the 2016 government to government deal with France and they may arrive in the country by early 2019.
The Air Force has plans of deploying one squadron each of Rafale on the China and Pakistan front in Hashmira and Ambala respectively.
India set to pack a punch on its enemies with Meteor missile
 

RISING SUN

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Varanasi girl becomes fighter pilot
A local girl Shvangi Singh is all set to fly fighter planes like Sukhoi and MIG after she was inducted to the Indian Air Force (IAF) as female fighter pilot. Shivangi and another flight cadet Pratibha from Rajasthan received wings from Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Sunil Lanba during the Combined Graduation Parade of Pilots and Ground Duty Officers held at Air Force Academy (AFA), Dundigal near Hyderabad on Saturday.

According to the PIB press release of ministry of defence, the event marked the momentous occasion of passing out of 105 Flight Cadets as Flying Officers of the Indian Air Force. These young officers included two women Fighter Pilots out of total 15 women officers, to join the elite cadre of Air Force Officers.

Shivangi hails from a modest family living in Phulwariya area of Varanasi. Her family members are happy with her feat. "We are extremely happy that she has become the first woman fighter pilot from this region, and she would fly fighter aircrafts like Sukhoi and MIG," said her uncle Rajeshwar Singh, who runs a family business of tour and travel with his younger brother and Shivangi's father Kumareshwar Singh. "We are proud of Shivangi, and wish she would serve the nation with her best," he told TOI on Sunday.

To be with her and witness this proud moment Shivangi's parents had also left for Hyderabad on Friday. "My daughter has a fighting spirit, and she wants to fight for the country," a delighted father told TOI over phone from Hyderabad.

After doing her schooling and graduation in Varanasi, Shivangi joined 7 UP Air Squadron NCC at Banaras Hindu University to fulfill her dream. After her selection in common aptitude test she went to the Air Force Academy in July 2016 for training. Her mother Seema Singh is a teacher and homemaker. Her younger brother Mayank Singh is a class IX student.
Varanasi girl becomes fighter pilot - Times of India
She belongs to my aunt's village and my birthplace as well. Feels really positive.
 

RISING SUN

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Soviet-era MI-8 ‘Pratap’ helicopter of Indian Air Force phased out


Bengaluru : A fleet of MI 8 "Pratap" helicopters on their last sortie for the formal adieu to the Multi-role helicopter during the phasing out ceremony at the Yelahanka Air base in Bengaluru on Sunday. PTI Photo by Shailendra Bhojak(PTI12_17_2017_000161B)(PTI)

The Soviet-era MI-8, the backbone of the Indian Air Force helicopter operations, was phased out on Sunday, bringing an end to its glorious service career spanning 45 years.

The phasing out ceremony was held at the Air Force Station at Yelahanka in Bengaluru, where the veterans bade a touching adieu to the multi-role helicopter fleet of IAF.

The Air Force had already phased out the 107 MI-8 helicopters, also known as ‘Pratap’ and the last chopper stopped its rotor at the Air Force Station, Yelahanka on Sunday.


A paramilitary soldier marches past the MI-8 helicopter during its phasing out ceremony from the Indian Air Force at the Yelahanka Air Force Station in Bengaluru on December 17. (REUTERS)

A grand ceremony preceded the end of the MI-8 helicopter’s service. Veterans headed by Air Chief Marshall (Retd) Fali Homi Major flew the last MI-8 mission along with the other crew members.

Air Marshal S R K Nair, Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Training Command, IAF was the chief guest on the occasion while Air Marshal Jasjit Singh Kler, Commandant NDA, was also present.

112 Helicopter unit based at Yelahanka station is the last unit to operate this formidable platform. The station housed an MI-8 squadron.

Recalling the service of MI-8,Air Marshal Nair said “Ever since the rotors churned for the first time, this helicopter played a very significant role right from the glaciers of Siachen, down to Andaman and Nicobar Islands and even across the littoral islands we have around our country.”

“Whether it is the deserts of the west or the far east, Vijay Naga, Gandhi Gram, this helicopter played a very vital role in day to day living in the inhospitable conditions... This helicopter also has a unique distinction of being in Antarctica and operating from Antarctica.”

He said the MI-8 operated in several major IAF operations,including Operation Meghdoot in the Siachen Glacier and Operation Pawan in Sri Lanka. The last relief service it participated in was the Chennai floods in 2015.

Retired Air Chief Marshal Fali Homi Major got nostalgic. He said he grew around this helicopter since 1972.

Formally inducted in 1972 and rechristened as “Pratap”, MI-8 took part in several major IAF operations, including Operation Meghdoot in the Siachen Glacier and the Indian Peace Keeping Force operation in Sri Lanka.

The helicopter, inducted in 10 operational helicopter units, was also extensively used in Humanitarian and Disaster Relief operations, besides being associated with VIP/VVIP flying.

IAF inducted 107 MI-8 helicopters between 1971 and 1988.

The Pratap could carry a weight of 4000 kgs, of which 3000 kgs can be external, with its multi role capabilities. It could carry 60 bombs of a total weight of 1000 kgs.
Soviet-era MI-8 ‘Pratap’ helicopter of Indian Air Force phased out
 

BMD

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2 of Indian Air Forces most popular fighter jets grounded, Air Chief flies final sortie

2 of Indian Air Force's most popular fighter jets grounded, Air Chief flies final sortie

The 108 Squadron, also known as the "Hawkeyes", took part in the Goa liberation war, the 1965 and 1971 India-Pakistan war.



Sudhi Ranjan Sen | Posted by Christopher Gonsalves

December 30, 2017 | UPDATED 10:59 IST

A +A -


Once based in Pathankot, the squadron was moved to defend the skies over Rajasthan. (Photo courtesy: Sudhi Ranjan Sen)

This afternoon, the Type-96-Mig-21, once the backbone and workhorse of the Air Force, swiftly took off from Nal Airbase in Bikaner, Rajasthan in what would be its last sortie.

The glorious 108 Squadron of the Indian Air Force, comprising the Type 96 -MiG-21 will be "number-plated" or decommissioned.

On Thursday, the last of the original Mig-27 fighter-bombers of the decorated 22 Squadron, roared for the last time over the forward airbase in Hasimara.
 

RISING SUN

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India’s first-ever women fighter pilots gear up for solo MiG-21 flights
Soon, within a month or so, an Indian woman will tear into the skies on a supersonic fighter jet all alone for the first time in the country. Avani Chaturvedi, Bhawana Kanth and Mohana Singh have already scripted history by becoming the first-ever women to undergo fighter pilot training in IAF.

But the trio have only undertaken solo sorties in aircraft like the Pilatus PC-7 turboprops, Kiran and Hawk jet trainers, which are much easier to handle, during their gruelling training regime so far. Now, Avani and Bhawana, are getting all set to fly the highly-demanding & ageing MiG-21 "Bisons", which have virtually the highest landing and take-off speed in the world at 340 kmph, by themselves at their respective airbases.

"Avani is already undertaking sorties in a twin-seat MiG-21 Type 69 trainer with a qualified fighter instructor (QFI) at the Suratgarh airbase. Bhawana will follow suit at the Ambala airbase soon. Mohana, in turn, is still with Hawk advanced jet trainers at the Kalaikunda airbase...She will also be posted to an operational squadron in due course," said a senior officer.

A rookie fighter pilot usually undergoes around a dozen "dual-check" sorties, where he or she is taught basic flying techniques, handling, take-off and landing, before being deemed fit for solo sorties by the QFIs. But flying jets solo does not mean they promptly turn into full-fledged fighter pilots, capable of handling the intricacies of high-voltage combat flying.

After "consolidating their general handling" of MiG-21s in solo sorties, the women pilots will graduate to tactical flying and manoeuvres. This, in turn, will be followed by training in air-to-air and air-to-ground combat. Once they become "fully ops (operational) by day" on the MiG-21s, the night-flying will kick-off first in the "moon phase" and then in the "dark phase" subsequently.

"A fighter pilot is declared 'fully ops' only after successfully undergoing this entire process, which takes upwards of a year," said another officer. Avani, Bhawana and Mohana, who were commissioned as flying officers into the fighter stream after basic training in June 2016, have punched a huge hole in the long-standing combat-exclusion policy for women in the Indian armed forces.

The move to induct them, even though only on "an experimental basis" for five years initially, has also propelled IAF to slowly jettison its old belief that having women pilots could disrupt "tight fighter-flying schedules" if they get married and have children.

The second batch of two women fighter pilots - the third is "medically down" after ejecting from a Kiran trainer last November - are currently undergoing training on Hawk advanced jet trainers. It takes around Rs 15 crore to train a single fighter pilot, as was earlier reported by TOI.

No favouritism was shown to Avani and Bhawana, who were posted to MiG-21 squadrons rather than the easier-to-handle modern fighters like Sukhoi-30MKIs or Mirage-2000s. This, of course, will also ensure they undertake "air defence missions" over Indian territory in the event of war (MiG-21s are basically meant to intercept incoming enemy aircraft), and not go for strike missions deep into enemy territory.

The military brass, apart from citing "operational, practical and cultural problems", has for long maintained the country is not yet ready to deal with the grim possibility of its women being taken PoWs, tortured or raped behind enemy lines during a war.
India’s first-ever women fighter pilots gear up for solo MiG-21 flights - Times of India
 

Parul

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Not approached Lockheed Martin for buying US F-35 fighter jet: IAF chief BS Dhanoa

New Delhi: The Indian Air Force (IAF) has categorically rejected reports that it has approached global US defence contractor Lockheed Martin for a classified briefing on American F-35 Lightning II aircraft.


Reacting to reports, IAF Chief BS Dhanoa said that no such request for procuring the American F-35 Lightning II aircraft has been made to the US.


''Americans have not been officially approached for a briefing on the F-35,''IAF Chief Dhanoa was quoted as saying by the Indian Express.

The clarification from Dhanoa came at a time when IAF is already down to 31 squadrons of fighter aircraft against an authorisation of 42.


In view of IAF's fast depleting fleet, the Centre is expected to go for a government-to-government deal to get the next set of fighters.


However, any decision on buying the next set of fighter jets will be taken only after considering several factors like financial considerations, especially when budgetary provisions are limited for any big-ticket procurement by the Defence Ministry.

The report also quoted sources as saying that the proposal to buy and make a single-engine fighter was taken two years back on multiple considerations, including its cost.


Importantly, the cost of a single-engine fighter is significantly lower than that of a double-engine fighter like Rafale.


Also, the cost of operating a single-engine fighter is much less than that of a double-engine fighter.

An early decision in this regard would have certainly come as a big relief to the IAF and helped it build up its fighter strength, along with the induction of HAL-built indigenous Tejas fighter aircraft.


The government later decided to scrap the proposal for a single-engine fighter because it felt that it would result in a single-vendor situation, which would not be acceptable in the current political environment.


Official sources, however, said that the government is seriously considering the whole Strategic Partnership Model of Defence manufacturing for future defence procurements.

Not approached Lockheed Martin for buying US F-35 fighter jet: IAF chief BS Dhanoa | India News
 

Picdelamirand-oil

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I think many of yo uwill be interested by a translation... about M53 and M88 engines.) M88 designed since the beginning up to 12T( nbut would there need changes in cold section).

ISC - CFHM - IHCC
THE REACTORS M 53 AND M 88

Alain Habrard

Branch Director​

Snecma military engines​

Military engines accounted for nearly 40% of Snecma's turnover - 70% of which was for export.

Snecma has always completely realized its combat aircraft engines. It is on this competence of mastering advanced technology carefully maintained, with the help of the Official Services, aware of the strategic importance of the propulsion, that Snecma intends to develop its position in the concert of the great world motorists.

40 Air Forces around the world use our engines and there are about 10 4th level repair centers.

After the ATAR, whose success and reputation continues with the 9K50 and which marked Snecma's entry into the reaction including "firsts" and supersonic and afterburner records, the M53 and M88 are now the two flagships of our military production.

Both engines have very different genesis and characteristics.

M 53

If the ATAR family is associated with the first generations of French jet aircraft and especially the Mirage III, IV, the M53 him, is the engine of the Mirage 2000. However, originally it was not intended for such versatile aircraft which explains as we will see, its original and unique formula.

In the late 1960s, a new twin-jet aircraft concept was emerging with the idea of intercepting supersonic transport aircraft such as the Concorde, the Tu 144, and similar-performance bombers (B1).

Snecma was therefore starting to study a new engine capable of reaching Mach 3 - 3.2, or even more, by combining it with a ramjet.

Such an engine would necessarily have a low compression ratio (<10) to avoid too high compressor outlet temperatures.

This is not advantageous for the low subsonic and partial thrust waiting regimes, hence the idea of incorporating a limited double flow effect which also brings the benefit of cold air to ventilate the PC channel.

With a compression ratio of 10, there is no need for a double-body compressor or more than variable timing: a simple and economical solution. This is how the M53 single-flow single-body formula was born.

Quickly Mach maxi requirements are down but the original formula of M53 remained attractive for M = 2,2 - 2,5 for its simplicity. The reduction of the Mach has made it possible to switch to an almost all-titanium engine and has of course eliminated the air cooling system of the turbine cooling.

The M53 was destined to replace the ATAR 9K50 in the single-jet Mirage F1 of the "Marché du siècle", then, the latter having been won by the F16, the M53 was finally chosen to power the Mirage 2000 launched in 1975.

Note that originally the M53 was intended for jets. The transition to the Mirage 2000 single-jet application led to two studies: a boost of thrust by changing the CoBP and the introduction of a redundant, mostly electronic analogue, full-throttle regulation associated with hydromechanical backups. This regulation gives the pilot a motor without limiting instruction throughout the flight area: as is the rule for Snecma engines.

The versatility requirements of the Mirage 2000 have also led to one of the M53's most unique features: the variable-flow regulator of the secondary flow, making the M53 the first variable cycle engine ever commissioned.

This device makes it possible to introduce a variability of the dilution ratio. Closed, it increases the specific thrust of the engine at maximum speed, especially in supersonic. Open, it favors an optimization of the Cs at partial cruises of low altitude cruising or waiting.

The M53-P2 equips the Mirage 2000 6 Air Force, 600 have been delivered and 120 are in command.

In the Gulf War or in Bosnia, the M53 has demonstrated its excellent availability. For all users of Mirage 2000, there is virtually no unavailability of the aircraft for cause engine.

Beyond the continuous improvements, developments of this engine are in preparation especially to further increase its reliability, reduce consumption, SIR, maintenance cost and possibly in some cases increase thrust. New service packages are also available to our customers.

The M 88

The genesis of M88 is very different from that of M53. The latter launched before the aircraft, as is customary for the engine, had to adapt to 3 successive aircraft projects. The M88 has benefited from a project of a perfectly structured and continuous system in its development from research upstream to serialization. As such, it is an exemplary program.

While the M53 and Mirage 2000 was in development, the French official services launched in 1975 the prospective studies of the future tactical combat aircraft ACF.

Also highlighted were the optimal characteristics of the future engine and the materials and technologies to be developed for top-level equipment for service entry planned in the early 1990s.

In 1979, for example, the development of monocrystalline superalloys and related processes was launched. Exploratory developments of components such as advanced compressors, very cooled turbines, aerodynamic injection chambers were also involved.

In 1982 the demonstrator program was launched.

After the failure of the EFA discussions in 1984-85, France launched the Rafale and the development of the M88 alone, drawing lessons from the demonstrator.

As a result, an engine is now entering its production phase after an exemplary development program in terms of deadlines, performance and costs.

The engine is, we think, the best international level in its characteristics:

- F / M 9;

- TET max 1850 K;

- excellent FADEC;

- 3rd generation superalloys for monocrystalline blades;

- Superalloys for very damage tolerant disc (powder metallurgy);

- Thermal barriers, etc. ;

- 3D aerodynamic design.

The M88 is designed to generate a very large family of combat aircraft derivatives: with the same HP body, it can lead to derivatives at 9 T in virtually the same size and up to 12 T with a larger BP system.

Components of advanced technologies are already being tested to prepare these future versions, one of which is proposed to revamp the Swedish Gripen in competition with the EJ 200 and F414.

The development of the M88 engine family offers many opportunities for cooperation.

The HP body of this engine is for example well suited to turboprop derivatives of high power (10,000 hp) that we proposed with MTU and Fiat for the future military transport aircraft.

We are very proud of the M88-2 and hope that the family will be developed to benefit from the technological advance we have.

Thank you for your attention.

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