Know your WEAPONS!!!

Levina

Social media admin
Moderator
Joined
Dec 2, 2017
Messages
143
Reactions
438 21 0
#1
This content is being published in collaboration with TEAM SHATRUJEET.

PART 1

Know all about your AK!!!


With millions of AK rifles and its variants in use all around the world ,it would not be wrong to say that AK has been able to make its own distinct mark in the world of weapons .It has been transformed into an iconic and a cult figure.
If there are many who devout AK then there are also fair share of people who detest it.Yes,there are rifle which are far more accurate ,have better ergonomics ,are lighter and have much less recoil than an AK.Still no one can deny that the AK is the most successful assault rifle in human history. In terms of the number of guns produced, duration of service, and worldwide deployment, it has no equal.
The success of the AK can be mainly attributed to its reliability ,low cost of production ,ease of mass production ,simplicity to operate with minimal working parts.
The name AK-47 is derived from the Russian words “Avtomat Kalashnikova”,here avtomat stands for automatic in russian and Kalashnikova is used in honour of its its principal designer, Mikhail Kalashnikov.The 47 represent the year 1947 ,when this rifle was first tested by the Russian Army.It is a popular theory that AK is the direct copy of german STG-44 rifle (Sturmgewehr 44/storm rifle),we are not going to dwell over it today ,as the crux of this post is to discuss the practical use of this rifle .We will make a post some other day on the history ,controversies ,development and various other variants of this rifle.
Before we start, we would like to request you to refer to the photo we have posted below to make yourself familiar to the various parts of this rifle,this will help you to understand the post ,in a much better way.We would also like to point out that the designation AK-47 is often used, generically,to refer to all Kalashnikov-pattern assault rifles.However, the AK-47 is a specific model of Kalashnikov. There have been many variants of this rifles and there have been many other rifles that have been produced based on it,however today we are going to discuss it in context of AKM specifically,as it is the most widely used variant in our country.AKM is a redesigned and improved version of the AK-47,here M stands for modernized or upgraded AK .It was introduced in 1959.The improvement on AKM over original AK 47 were that it was made with stamped sheet metal receiver, instead of the receiver of the AK-47 that was machined from a solid steel billet ,thus bringing down the cost of production as well as a reduction in the weight of the rifle.It also featured a slanted compensator at the muzzle end of the barrel to reduce muzzle rise under recoil.
Today,we will not only learn about the basic structure ,parts of an AKM but we will also learn how to live with an AK.Before we proceed any further make yourself familiar with the various parts in an AKM.

====================
General overview of AKM parts-










In the front end of the rifle ,at the mouth of the barrel there is a slant muzzle compensator(half cut from top at the front of the barrel of the rifle )(a compensator is a device that prevent the rifle from jumping up during firing),as you can see in the design the compensator is cut from top portion,it is to direct all the expanding hot gases towards upward direction of the muzzle of the barrel.The upward escaping gas push the muzzle downward(every action has an equal and opposite reaction) this downward force counter the jump of the rifle due to recoil and keep the rifle stable for quick follow up shots.This slanted compensator is generally screwed into the thread present in front end of the barrel,where you can mount a muzzle device of your choice,but sometimes this compensator could also be welded to barrel,in such case it can't be removed from the barrel.Beside compensator there are two other type of major muzzle device which can be used in an ak. First is muzzle brake ( a muzzle brake is a device that redirects all the escaping gases from a the muzzle towards rear of the rifle,thus pushing the rifle towards front ,this force toward the front counter the recoil force toward the rear of the rifle and thus counterbalance it .So basically muzzle brake are used to reduce the recoil of a rifle) .Second type of muzzle device is a Flash hider (as the name suggest it used in rifle to reduce the flash at the muzzle end of the rifle.When a bullet exist from the muzzle of the rifle,the gases generated by it have many particles that burn and produce bright flash,the flash hider disperse these gases in such a way that those particles are dispersed all over thus reducing the flash that is created by the burning of those particles.This diminishes distracting, blinding light experienced by the shooter in darker surroundings due to the flash of the rifle.).In the original AKM you will see the slant muzzle compensator which direct some of the gases coming out of the muzzle upwards and right,as a result it significantly reduces muzzle climb and rightward muzzle drift during very rapid fire but in later model and custom AKM you can see various design of muzzle brake and flash hider mounted on them,as per the user choice.
Just behind the muzzle device is the barrel of the rifle(basically a metal tube through which the bullet is fired).This barrel is 436mm in length(the length is upto the muzzle).It is a rifled barrel with four right-hand grooves (A rifled barrel is the one in which spiral grooves are cut inside a gun barrel, that give the bullet a spinning motion,which makes it stable during flight),those barrel which does not have any rifling or spiral grooves are called smooth bore barrel.The twist rate of the barrel is 1 in 9.45 ( twist rate refers to the rate of spin of the bullet in the rifle barrel before it comes out of it, twist rate is represented in inches per turn.For eg with twist rate of 1:9.45 the bullet will spin one revolution in 9.45inches inside the barrel,twist rate is determined by the number of spiral grooves cut inside the barrel which spin the bullet as it travel out.It’s important that your barrel has an adequate twist rate to stabilize the bullet,the ideal twist rate depend on the size of the bullet and the barrel,AKM has adequate twist rate for a 7.62x39mm bullet.)
At the rear end of this barrel ,located inside the rifle is chamber,a chamber is the portion of the barrel that holds the round, ready for firing.The chamber is especially designed and reinforced to withstand the pressure and blast from explosion of the bullet primer that propel the bullet forward,it is because of the chamber that your rifle does not explode ,despite of the mini explosion inside it,every time your fire a bullet.
-Next just behind the muzzle of the barrel there is a fixed iron sight,which is of post type,this post resemble a vertical straight line in shape .The front sight consist of a base which is held tightly to the barrel by means of pins.The front sight post is screwed at the top centre of this base,the sight post is threaded and screws into a floating cylinder that is used for windage adjustments during sighting.The front sight base also has two protecting ears(two semi circles ) on top of it covering the front sight post form both sides,these ears protect the front sight post from any disturbance from outside factors,they are integrated part of the sight block.The front sight post is covered from both the sides by these ears and at rear from the sight base to protect it,however it is left exposed from top to allow the sight adjustment tool to reach it(basically to rotate the post to adjust for elevation).The round section at the upper section of the front sight block(above the cut out area) is the foresight stud/windage drum,this can be moved left or right to adjust windage for zero.You should always remember that you can adjust your bullet impact by moving the front sight post in the opposite direction you want your bullet impact to move.For example if you want your bullet impact to go up you will have to screw in /down the front sight post ,if you want the bullet impact to go down you will have to screw out/up the front sight post.Similarly when you want the bullet impact to go towards left you will have to push the front sight post towards right,whereas when you want the bullet impact to go towards right you will have to push your front sight post towards left.You can adjust the front sight post towards left or right through the windage drum present just below the ears of the front sight post(round shape beneath the ears)It can be done using an empty cartridge and a hammer.When you are zeroing your rifle (that is your point of aim should be equal to the point of impact of the bullet at the given distance )you can adjust your front sight post for it,by moving it in the opposite direction.Basically if you want to shift the point of impact(POI) of the bullet to right,you shift the front sight post to left,if you want (POI) to move to right ,you move the front sight post to right.Similarly if you want (POI) to move down,you screw the front sight post up,if you want (POI) to go up ,you screw the front sight post down.Please note that front sight post is attached to the base of front sight by screwing it in the threaded portion in the centre meant for it.There are two circular drum on both outer side of the front sight block called windage drum,it is through them that we push the front sight post left or right.You can use an empty cartridge and a hammer to move the front sight post left or right by keeping one end of the cartridge on the windage drum and hitting it with the hammer toward the opposite direction you want your bullet impact to move.The front sight block also has a recess at its bottom ,which holds the cleaning rod head.


- Just below the barrel is a cleaning rod ,a thin metal rod used for cleaning the barrel and for checking and clearing any obstruction in the barrel.The cleaning rod head is held by a recces/a hollow space at the base of front sight block,then it goes through a hole at the base of the gas block(again situated on the barrel) and goes into a hole in the handguard retainer.The cleaning rod is held in its place by the tension between the gas block and the front sight block.



- Just after the front sight block there is a hollow metal tube going up at an 45 degree angle from the rifle barrel and then connecting the barrel with a cylindrical tube present at the the top of the barrel .This metal block connecting the rifle barrel to the cylinder is called a gas block.The basic purpose of this gas block is to divert the gases from the barrel to the cylinder above,these gases are the driving force behind the AKM operating cycle.There is a small hole drilled at the top of the barrel,this hole is drilled at 45 degree angle(now many AK have this hole drilled at 90 degree angle) ,this hole is called gas port.The purpose of the gas port is to direct the escaping gases towards the rifle gas tube ;to help in cycling the bolt carrier.Gas block is a hollow metal tube which connect this gas port with the gas tube situated above the barrel.It will be slanted at 45 degree angle to offer the escaping gas a path of least resistance as they travel from a 45 degree gas port on the barrel through the gas block towards the rear of the rifle.The gas block fits on the barrel very tightly and is locked by two pins.At the base of the gas block below the barrel is a notch/hole ,through which the cleaning rod passes.At the top the gas block has circular edge through which it is connected to the gas tube.The gas block also has few small semi circular vent holes in the side edge of its top circular end which connects to the gas tube/gas cylinder.The purpose of these holes is to vent out all the excess and foul gases and carbon out ,as once the gas has pushed the gas piston in it's rearward movement,the gas has no more job. The holes vent our the gas after the piston starts moving.(Piston head is seated in the upper circular portion of the gas block,piston head is pushed back by the pressure of the gas which travel upwards from the barrel through the gas block ,and once it meets a resistance in form of piston head,it applies it force on it thus pushing it backward,as the piston move backward it exposes the holes present in the edges of the gas block , providing a escape route to the gases.As,Once the gas piston exits the gas block the pressure is no longer needed, enough momentum has been imparted to the carrier that it continues rearward on it's own. At this point the gas exits the holes to keep the hot gases from following the tube and releasing them into the receiver.)



- Attached to the upper circular end of the gas block,just behind it is the gas tube.The gas tube is a hollow metal tube ,cylindrical in shape .Front end of the gas tube is attached to the rear end of the gas block by just inserting the some part of the front end of gas tube into the rear circular end of the gas block.Whereas at the rear end of the gas tube there is an indent which is seated inside the space in the rear sight block ,where the gas tube is locked by turning the gas tube retaining lever down at an 45 degree angle.This lever is at the right hand side of the rear sight block .The gas tube itself just acts as a guide for the gas piston,which runs through inside of the gas tube .When the piston is not cycling ,it sits inside the gas tube ,with the piston head at the rear end of the gas block.The gas tube is fluted so some of the gas flows around the piston once it's out of the gas block,to reduce friction.The upper handguard of the rifle is clamped to the top of the gas tube.Only some portion of the gas tube is visible from outside ,attached to the gas block,rest of the portion is covered by the handguard,the gas tube go till the front end of the rear sight block.Two metal ring which resemble the "u" shape are fastened on the rear end and near the front end of the gas tube,these ring are fastened on the gas tube in inverted position,on top of the gas tube will come the top part of inverted "u" ,please do note reference to "u" is to just give some idea of shape.These ring are used to clamp the upper handguard to the gas tube ,these ring are known as front and rear joining collars/handguard retainers of the gas tube.



- When you are viewing the AK from outside ,after the gas tube what you will see on the rifle is handguard.Handguard as the name suggest is to protect the shooters hand from burning form heat generated in the barrel ,as well as for the convenience of gripping the rifle.The handguard are made up of laminated wood.The handguard is divided into two parts,upper and lower as the name suggest upper handguard cover the top of the rifle .It is mounted on the gas tube ,for mounting the upper handguard on the gas tube ,first Using a wrench , gently lock across the flat side portions in back of the gas tube(this is the same portion of the gas tube that seats in the rear sight block),Now with the upper handguard upside down place it at the bottom of the gas tube and push up the handguard into the gas tube,once the hand guard sits on the gas tube,rotate the handguard with gas tube held at its position through wrench.(Remember the handguard is upside down,so basically it sits inverted on the gas tube ,when you will successfully rotate the handguard ,it will return to its original position ,and will sits on the gas tube with the upside of the handguard on top,by doing this you will basically lock the handguard on the gas tube.The upper handguard has 4 recesses/cut out portion at its bottom end ,two on each side.These are there for air circulation to assist in cooling of the barrel,as the barrel tend to heat up from sustained firing of bullets from it.(these are basically cut at the bottom of the handguard which make space,opening,vent for the airflow,so as to vent out the heat of the barrel easily).There is a metal pressure clip seated inside the handguard,this help the handguard to clamp on the gas tube.As the handguard is already attached to the gas tube ,we do not need to retain the handguard on the rifle,it is retained along with the gas tube ,which is installed with its forward end in the gas block and its rear end in the notch of the rear sight base and is locked by means of a gas tube retaining lever present on the rear sight block.
-Similar to the upper handguard the lower handguard is also made up of laminated wood.The lower handguard is also known as fore-end .It is large at the rear and tapers(narrow down) at the front.It has got 4 recesses(vents cut out ),two at each side at its bottom.There is a horizontal bulge at its centre on both side,it is there to aid in gripping the rifle.There is also a thin U shaped metal clamp inside the handguard ,which protects the handguard from wrapping or sticking to the barrel.The lower handguard is installed on the barrel of the rifle ,upside down.For installing lower handguard there is a handguard retainer ring,which is a metal ring ,that is mounted on the barrel of the rifle,this handguard retainer ring has a small hole at its bottom,through which the cleaning rod passes.It also has a side ring which is used to mount the sling of the rifle.This retainer ring can be slided forward and back on the barrel.When you have to install the lower handguard just slide this retainer ring to the front of the barrel ,near the gas block.Now push up the lower handguard upside down ,on the barrel.At the back of the wooden handguard there will be a wooden tab protruding out,slide this wooden tab in the opening at the front of the receiver ,below the barrel.Through this you will be attaching the rear of the handguard to the front of the rifle receiver .Now slide back the handguard retainer ring present on the barrel (which you have slided forward a while ago)When the retainer ring reaches the front end of the handguard .Now there will be a small lever ,which will be facing towards the muzzle of the rifle,push this lever at 180 degree angle ,inside the lower handguard pointing towards the rear of the rifle and in line with the barrel of the rifle.Once this lever is pushed towards the handguard side,the retainer ring will lock the handguard in its place.



==========
-Please do note that later on the russian themselves ,as well as the others in the world moved away from the wooden handguard ,to polymer handguards for the AKM.







-Right after the front handguard , the rear sight block of the AKM is located at the top of the rifle.It is a rear "U" notched type open iron sight ,with elevation for different ranges.The rear sight block consist of a base and a sight leaf at the top of the base.The sight leaf is mounted on a ramp ,which is part of the base.The sight base has a lug/hole,by means of which the sight is mounted on the barrel with help of a pin,which hold the base on the barrel.A gas tube lock lever is located out,on the right hand side of the base .Turning this lever to 45 degree down locks the rear of the gas tube into the base,whereas turning this lever up will release the gas tube from the base.The sectors or the ramp is integral with the top of the sight base and is used to set the desired ranges.The sight leaf have markings for shooting at different distances measured in meters.The adjustments are intended to change the ballistic trajectory so that point of aim and point of impact are the same at the respective distance selected on the sight.The sight leaf has odd numbers inscribed on the right side from 1 to 9 ,which represent the ranges of 100 to 900 meters .On the left side there are inscribed even numbers from 2 to 10,which correspond to ranges of 200 to 1000 meters.On the left side of the sight leaf is the letter "p"(Symbol could be different depending on the country of origin).It is located at the rear most position on the sight leaf below the number 1.The rear sight leaf has a sight bar with rectangular notches for the catch teeth ,longitudinal notch for the exact indexing of the inscribed number .



-The metal body right behind the lower handguard is the receiver of the AKM,before we dwell further regarding the details of the receiver on the AKM ,let's first understand the concept of receiver.A receiver is a frame or that part of rifle which house the breech block, bolt and the firing mechanism of the rifle.In AKM and most of the rifles receiver is usually single body housing all the components named above ,however in some rifle like the m16,ar 15 design the receiver is divided into 2 parts instead of one single body.The receiver in an ar 15 rifle is divided into upper and lower ,where the top part is housing the barrel and bolt while the lower part is housing the trigger group, the two parts are held together by a pin ,by disengaging the pin you can separate the two.

Now returning back to the AKM ,the receiver of the AKM is made from the stamped sheet steel, with machined steel inserts riveted into the place where required.In a stamped receiver a flat piece of thin metal sheet is stamped and bent into a box shape and riveted with a center spacer with both front and rear trunnions.The other type of receiver commonly found in rifles is machined/milled receiver ,here each receiver is machined from a block of steel into shape rather than stamping various sheet of steel into a particular shape. All the internal guide rails, magazine well and latch surfaces, bolt locking surfaces, bolt carrier stop, and the barrel and buttstock receiving sockets, were cut into the same, single piece of steel.We will talk about the differences among these two receiver some other day.

===========


However ,since we are talking about the stamped and machined receiver you must be wondering how you can differentiate between the two.There are two ways to visually differentiate between a machined and a stamped receiver





1 .A machined receiver has a large horizontal rectangular shaped cut-out , which is nearly 5 inches long on each side of the receiver, above the magazine slot ,at the lower edge of the receiver. It was designed to reduce the overall weight of the rifle.Just look above the portion where you have inserted the magazine of the rifle.Whereas in a stamped receiver at the same position on each side of the receiver ,instead of a rectangular cutout we have a small, shallow indentation,about 1-inch long .You can see a smaller, more rounded dimple just above where the magazine is inserted this dimple is known as "magazine guide".
Please note that the purpose of the dimple in the stamped receiver and the rectangular cut in the machined receiver is totally different .The dimple is there to act as the magazine guide,it act as the indicator of the centre point of the magazine ,when the magazine is inserted into the receiver.Whereas the rectangular slot in the machined receiver is done to reduce the weight of the receiver by slicing off some metal,also do remember that both the dimple and the rectangular slot are on both side of the receiver at corresponding positions.
2. Other method for differentiating between the two receiver is to check the rear of both the receiver by removing the rifle stock.The design of the rear side of both the receiver is different .Where is stamped you a a open rectangular opening in a machined receiver you have a narrow inverted "U" shaped opening(please refer to the photo).Due to this difference is design the stock of a stamped receiver AKM cannot be mounted on a machined receiver AKM and vice -versa.


While we are at it,let's learn the brief history of AK receiver.The soviet experimented with 4 different receivers (including the present stamped one) before they settled for the stamped receiver which you see in the AKM,which is the 4th and final receiver .The first receiver of Ak rifle was made from a sheet steel stamping fitted with a machined steel trunnion into which the breech of the barrel was fitted.But there were problem in welding the internal component to this type of receiver ,the heat generated from the welding used to cause the receiver to bent making it unsuitable.As a result of this a second method of production was used to manufacture the receiver ,that was machined receiver -the method of maching the receiver from a solid block of steel.The machined receiver ,which will be the 2nd type was heavier but stronger than the stamped receiver and had rectified the problem of bending due to heat faced in the previous (1st) receiver.However a new problem cropped up in this type of receiver .The fitting of existing stock was having difficulty in this type of receiver ,that led to redesigning of this receiver .The 3rd receiver was also a machined one but it differed from the 2nd receiver mainly in the method of fixing the stock to the receiver.Although the machined receiver were working fine ,they were complex,expensive to produce and were heavy ,which led to the designers to continue to find the solution of the problem faced in the 1st type stamped receiver.With the help of simple changes to the design and production methods and with the help of various german engineer working in Russia ,they were able to eventually overcome the problems they faced with stamped receiver.Some of the changes were less use of welding and more use of riveting and stamped parts.These improvement resulted in the type of 4 stamped receiver,and a new weapon designation -the Avtomat Kalashnikova Modernizirovanniy or AKM.The type 4 receiver first appeared during 1955,but it was not until 1959 that the design had been sufficiently developed for it to be accepted into service as the standard weapon type.
Now coming back to the stamped AKM receiver which we are discussing.The Russian AKM receiver is stamped from a flat sheet of thin metal, bent into its "U" box shape, and riveted together with a center spacer and both a front and rear trunnion(A trunnion is something which is used as a mounting and pivoting point). Instead of being pinned or threaded directly into the receiver as in a milled receiver, the barrel for a stamped AK is pinned into a barrel trunion,located at the front of the receiver. The front trunnion contains the bolt locking and carrier stop surfaces. The trunnion is then riveted into the front of the receiver. Similarly, a rear trunnion is riveted into the back of the receiver and forms the buttstock socket, stock tang, and the carrier return spring mounting slot.
On the exterior of the receiver,at left side in the front,just behind the top portion of the rear of the lower handguard, there is the serial number of the rifle ,year of manufacture and factory marking of the rifle.The three protruding rivet heads which can be seen at the front of the receiver are the rivets that are holding the front trunnion inside the receiver ,similarly two rivet head can be seen at the rear end of the receiver which are holding the rear trunnion inside the receiver.These rivets can also be seen from the right hand side of the receiver ,as these are the rivet points of the front and rear trunnion.The circular weld marks for the internal bolt guide are also clearly visible on the side of the receiver.There is also a small depression or dimple just above the magazine slot of the receiver ,this act as a magazine guide .There are two dimple at corresponding to each other on both sides of the receiver ,these dimples act as the magazine guide that keep the magazine centered in the rifle.
On the right side of the AKM receiver ,just above the pistol grip you can see the selector lever of the AKM ,this selector lever has added central reinforcing rib,the selector lever as the name suggest is used to select firing mode of the rifle.Just above the rear end of the magazine slot ,there are markings that are stamped on the receiver ,these marking indicate the firing mode for the selector lever.Always remember the topmost position is for safe,middle position of the lever is for automatic/burst and the bottom position is for single shot in AKM and please note there is no marking for safe position you must know that topmost position is for safe,rest there are marking at middle and bottom for automatic and single shot respectively.The receiver also has a selector stop to prevent the selector lever being force down too far.It is positioned above the forward edge of the trigger guard.


At the front top edge of the receiver ,there is a metal tab protruding out of the receiver ,this is called charging/cocking handle,It is permanently attached to the bolt carrier(we will talk about it after this) and reciprocates(move rearward and forward) when the rifle is fired.Just above the position where charging handle is placed when at rest, is the ejection port,it is a 45 degree angle slot which ejects out the spent casing of the bullet when the bolt carrier move rearward.When the rifle is not firing this ejection port is covered by the bolt carrier ,it is exposed only when the bolt carrier move backward ,either on its own or either by manually pushing back the bolt carrier through the charging handle that is protruding out.
On top of the receiver is the top cover also known as dust cover/receiver cover ,as the name suggest it is a cover for the receiver .The top cover is there to protect the receiver from outside elements and preventing dust from going in the receiver.The top cover is made up thinner sheet metal than the one used for the receiver,hence to strengthen the top cover a series of ribs have been stamped on the top cover(the rib pattern on the top cover can be clearly seen,these are for strengthening the top cover).This top cover has a rectangular slot at its rear ,through which the recoil spring guide lug passes and locks the top cover to the rifle.The top cover is fastened to the receiver by its forward face,which enters a semicircular groove in the base of the rear sight,and by means of the lug of the return spring guide rear end,which enters the opening in the rear wall of the receiver cover.The top cover is designed in such a way ,that when it is seated over the receiver ,it leaves a slot in the front half area between it and the receiver,this area is left to aid the rearward movement of the bolt carrier and the charging handle protruding out of it as well as for the ejection port.


Inside the receiver there is a rigid tubular cross-section support that adds structural strength to the receiver.At top end of the inside of the receiver there are two rails ,one on each side facing each other ,these are known as top rails.Just below the top rails at some gap are two guide rails ,one on each side.The purpose of these rails is to aid in sliding of the bolt carrier group .The left hand side guide rail(which is below the top rail ) has a shark fin type indent protruding out,this is known as ejector as the empty casing are pushed outside the rifle by it as they are moving backward along with the bolt carrier group.(To understand the design of the top rail and the guide rail please refer to the photo )
At the rear end of the receiver there is a slot ,through which the butstock of the rifle is attached to the rear trunnion.At the bottom of the receiver there are three slot,front one for magazine slot,middle one for trigger and the rear one for the pistol grip.
Talking about the main component which are housed inside the receiver;first and foremost we will talk about the bolt carrier group.Bolt carrier group has the operating rod ,which is the main body of the bolt carrier ,to the operating rod at the front piston rod is attached,whereas the bolt sits in a cylindrical body at the bottom of the operating rod.This is known as bolt carrier group.


=====================
The bolt carrier group comprise of bolt carrier ,piston and bolt
Bolt carrier-
Bolt carrier has a hollow rod at the top known as the operating rod,a piston rod is attached at the front of the operating rod by means of threads and pin which is installed in a hole present in the forward end of the operating rod.
The bolt carrier has a has a cylindrical channel at its rear end in which the rear end of the bolt is installed.In the sides of the bolt carrier there are grooves which guides the operating rod in the receiver by riding on the guide rails present in the receiver.On the right side there is a lug which disconnects the automatic sear and is called the full automatic disconnector.On the left side there is a notch for passing the ejector.Bolt carrier also have a rear bevel for smooth cocking of the hammer when the operating rod is moving to the rear and a forward bevel for depressing the cocked hammer as the operating rod is moving forward.
On the right side of the bolt carrier there is a charging handle integrated to it.
In the central portion of the bolt carrier there is a cam surface on which the bolt guide lug rides.The bolt rotates due to its the movement of its guide lug on this cam surface.This cam surface act as railway track and the lug on the bolt act as the wheel of a train which are set on the tracks.As the bolt carrier move forward or rear- ward the tracks passes through the guide lug on the bolt causing the rotation of the bolt.
Bolt -
The bolt consist of a body,firing pin,spring loaded extractor and two retaining pin-one for firing pin and other for extractor.
The bolt head(front portion of the bolt) has a right and left lugs ,which locks with the receiver lugs when the bolt rotates clockwise.It has a guide lug ,which when travel through the cam track machined in the bolt carrier causes the bolt to rotate.Then the bolt head also have a forward edge ,which pushes out the top most round from the magazine and feed it into the chamber ,through a ramp.
The bolt also have extractor (a metal claw) in ihe front face of the bolt.The extractor which is spring loaded grasp the rim of the cartridge as it is pushed inside the chamber ,when a round is fired the extractor pull out the cartridge from the chamber.The extractor with spring is installed in the bolt in the bolt head by means of pin.In the bolt body there is a longitudinal groove for passing the extractor,in the rear portion the groove is made wider for passing the extractor when the bolt is rotating as the chamber is being sealed or opened.
In the center of the body there is a channel for housing the firing pin.In the forward position the channel is conical in shape,and the other end terminates in a hole for passing the tip of the firing pin.The firing pin when struck by the hammer at rear ,pierces the primer of the cartridge setting it off.
The firing pin is divided into the rear and the forward portion .The portion terminates in the tip of the firing pin1,in the rear portion there are three longitudinal grooves for decreasing the weight of the firing pin and for decreasing friction as it moves in the channel in the bolt body.The firing pin is prevented from falling out of the bol body by a retaining pin,which passes a notch in the firing pin.
Piston -
To the operating rod of the bolt carrier the piston rod is attached at the front top portion by means of threads and pin which is installed in hole in a hole present in the forward end of the operating rod.A piston in simple terms is a metal rod with a head which is attached to he operating rod and form a part of the bolt carrier.Piston head receives the pressure of the gases in the gas block and start moving rearward,the piston rod transfer this momentum to the operating rod which also start moving rearward resulting in whole bolt carrier moving back(bolt carrier group = bolt carrier+piston+bolt)
On the forward face of the piston there is a sharp rim which scrapes off carbon from the walls of the gas cylinder as the operating rod moves.
Charging handle -
The charging handle is a metal tab present at the right top hand of the bolt carrier and protruding out from the right side of the receiver.It is called charging/cocking handle because by pulling it to the rear and then releasing it ,by which it return back to the front you charge,cock the rifle that is cock the hammer and chamber a round if there is one in the magazine.This process is called charging or cocking the rifle.
When the escaping gases hit the piston head seated in the gas block,it is pushed backward ,when the piston rod travel backward,the whole bolt carrier group travel backwards in the receiver ,as the bolt carrier group travel backwards, it cocks the hammer ,when it reaches the rear of the receiver it is pushed forward by the recoil spring connected at the rear channel present in the bolt carrier group .So this is how the bolt carrier group move inside the receiver when rifle is fired.
The return mechanism inside the receiver consist of return spring,guide ,guide rod .The return spring as the name suggest is a spring which is placed horizontally at the rear of the receiver ,its head is placed inside the channel,present at the top rear edge of the bolt carrier group.It is connected to the bolt carrier group through it.The return spring return the bolt carrier to the extreme forward position after firing.The guide and the guide rod are metal rods on which the return spring ride during its movement ,these rod prevent the return spring from bending and help in keeping it straight.Guide rod is at the front of the return spring and the guide at the rear portion ,the return spring is placed over these rods.On the inside forward portion of the guide there is a shoulder which stops the guide rod ,when the return spring travel rearwards.The guide also has a lug at its rear ,through which the return mechanism is connected to the receiver.
Next comes the firing mechanism of the rifle which is housed at the bottom of the receiver .The firing mechanism consist of trigger group which has hammer,trigger spring,trigger,disconnector,disconnector spring.full automatic sear,full automatic sear spring and selector lever.
Among other major component that are housed inside the receiver are the trunnion.There is a front trunnion and a rear trunnion.The front trunnion as the name suggest sits at the front end of the receiver ,its main purpose is to attach the barrel to the receiver .The barrel is pressed and pinned into the front trunion.The rear of the barrel is pressed into trunnion,the chamber of the barrel sits inside the trunnion.The trunnion have bolt locking and carrier stop surface.When the bolt carrier travel forward the front of the bolt is locked at the mouth of the chamber present in the trunnion.The front trunnion is riveted to the front of the receiver.The three rivets at the front end ,on both side of the receiver are the same rivets which are holding the trunnion to the receiver.
The rear trunion is riveted into the back of the receiver and forms the buttstock socket, stock tang, and the carrier return spring mounting slot.You can clearly see the two rivet heads holding in the rear trunion at the rear end of the receiver from outside.
-Now we come to the buttstock of the rifle.First we are talking about the fixed wooden stock.The buttstock is made up of laminated wood.The buttstock used in the AKM is further hollowed in order to reduce weight and is longer and straighter than that of the AK-47, which assists accuracy for subsequent shots during rapid and automatic fire. The wooden stock also houses the issued cleaning kit, which is a small diameter metal tube with a twist lock cap. The kit normally contains the cleaning jag to which a piece of cloth material is wrapped around and dipped into cleaning solution. It also contains a pin punch, an assembly pin to hold the trigger, disconnector and rate reducer together while putting these back into the receiver after cleaning the weapon, and a barrel brush. The kit is secured inside the butt stock via a spring-loaded trap door in the stock's pressed sheet metal butt cap.
There was also a folding stock version for the airborne troops and armored infantry to use in combat vehicles such as the BMP,it has an under folding steel stock.Such AKM with under folding stock is called AKMS.The folding metal stock consist of two bars and a shoulder rest.On the forward ends of the bars there are lugs for stock pins and on the rear end there are lugs for the pins of the shoulder rest.In the rear end of the bars there are locks with springs which retain the shoulder rest in the service position.The stock catch holds the stock in the service and folded positions.The stock pin holds the stock to the receiver.The stamped folding stock is reinforced with impressed ridges and steel strips riveted on the internal face.
Next is pistol grip.Early pistol grip were made up of wood,then later it was replaced with Bakelite(plastic)pistol grip.The grip screw nut is a separate piece that fits down from inside the receiver through a square hole behind the trigger guard.
Then comes the trigger guard of the rifle.A trigger guard as the name suggest is a loop surrounding the trigger of a firearm and protecting it from accidental firing.The Trigger guard is stamped, and is riveted onto the bottom of the receiver.




Just in front of the front edge of the trigger guard is the magazine release lever .It is made up of a vertical metal lever called mag catch,it is a spring loaded lever .When you insert the magazine in the slot present at the bottom of the receiver and pull it backwards ,the magazine catch lock the notch present at the rear top edge of the magazine thus locking the magazine to the receiver,when this happen there is a click sound indicating that the magazine has been locked .By pushing this mag catch forward you can release the magazine from the lock and take it out form the rifle receiver.
Ahead of the mag catch is the Magazine .The older magazine were made up of sheet metal with ribbed pattern to increase body strength but were replaced with orange-red plastic magazine later.The magazine is inserted into the magazine slot opening in the bottom of the receiver and secured along the longitudinal axis with a notch in the magazine itself and a spring loaded magazine catch in front of the trigger guard.The magazine contains and feed the round ,an AKM traditional magazine has a 30 rounds capacity ,however you should load only 29 rounds and then transfer one round in the chamber with only 28 rounds in the magazine ,so as to avoid malfunctioning of the magazine spring .The magazine is curved which is famously called the "banana shape" ,this curve is because the 7.62x39 round tapers from the base to the shoulder as a result of which ,when they are stacked one over the other the rounds naturally form an angle after some rounds,because of the taper in their shape,because of this the 7.62x39 mm magazine is curved at an angle in order to accommodate the 7.62x39mm rounds in it,the curve in the magazine allow smooth movement of round along the angle.Another reason for curved AK mags is because the magazine is seated and locked in the receiver at an angle ,the curve provide that angle which enable easy seating of the magazine inside the receiver.
The steel magazine consist of a body,follower,follower spring base plate and base plate retainer.The body serves to connect all parts of the magazine and for holding 30 rounds.The upper portion of the body acts as a feeding mechanism and has flanges(a projecting flat collar also known as feed lips )for retaining each round before it is fed into the chamber.Between the flanges there is a hole for passing the feeder arm,which pushed out each round from feed mechanism as the bolt moves forward and sends the round into chamber.To the top of the magazine body are two side plates welded into it.The one at the top front which is known as catch, hold the forward portion of the magazine to the receiver,when the catch enters the notch of the receiver the lugs of the receiver limit the upward movement of the magazine.Whereas when the rear portion of the magazine is inserted into the receiver it is engaged by the magazine catch and locked into the receiver.
In the lower portion of the magazine body there are flanges for attaching the cover plate.On the rear wall there is a hole through which the last round of a fully loaded magazine can be seen.The follower transmits the force of the spring to the round and together with the feed mechanism of the magazine locate each round properly before it is fed into the chamber.It has side plates for guiding the follower feed surface.The follower spring serves to feed the round into the feed mechanism by mean of acting on the follower.
Now coming to the bayonet, a special AKM wire cutter bayonet could be attached beneath the muzzle through the bayonet lug under the gas block. .Some AKM have the single shot GP-25 grenade launcher under the fore end(lower handguard) and an additional grenade launching sight fitted above the gas tube .A special resilient butt pad was issued to minimize the effects of the recoil on the shooter shoulder.


**********************************************************************************************
AKs to be continued in the next post...

The original content of this article belongs to TEAM SHATRUJEET's FB page and I've been permitted to use it here for our audience.

@Bornubus


FYI- @Avi @Aashish @Ashutosh @nair @Manmohan_MMY @SpArK @Ashwin @RATHORE @Sathya @dray @Harry @Kalmuah @Jason Bourne @AbRaj
@Shekhar Singh @Nick @Shashank @Dagger @Picdelamirand-oil @Falcon @_Anonymous_ @NRJ @A Person @Tarun
@RISING SUN @ni8mare @Antiguy @vstol Jockey @Vergennes @AKD @Abingdonboy @meme @Golden_Rule
 

Levina

Social media admin
Moderator
Joined
Dec 2, 2017
Messages
143
Reactions
438 21 0
#3
AKs PART-2

Hope you have got the basic idea of various parts in a Russian AKM rifle, through this brief introduction to them .Now let's learn about the operating mechanism of the AKM ,basically how the rifle works.Before you learn how an AK 47 or AKM works let's learn how a bullet works.

To understand how the rifle works ,you should first know how a bullet/round work.Let's learn the working of the round first.






















Cartridge also called a "round" is made up of a case,primer,propellant and a bullet.(refer to the photo)

A case is the main body of the cartridge.Which is usually made up of steel ,which sears the bullet and contains the powder charge.In 7.62x39mm the case is copper plated and is rimless with bottleneck.

The cartridge contains the primer in the centre of its base ,where it can be struck by the firing pin of the action."Primer"is a volatile substance that ignites when struck to detonate the powder in a cartridge.The primer ,is like a fuse igniting a small charge which set a large charge.

Primer is a collective term for the chemical compound,cup,anvil.When the primer is struck,it ignites the powder charge.

The next section of the cartridge is a chemical explosive called a propellant. Its job is to power the bullet down the gun and through the air to the target.The propellant is placed just above the primer,so when primer explodes it set off a explosion in the the propellant.



At the front of the cartridge at the top of the case is the actual bullet, a tapering projectile that hits the target at high speed. It tapers to a point mainly to reduce air resistance and to help in penetrating the target.The bullet consist of a soft core ( lead) encased in a shell of harder metal(steel).Lead is used because it is very dense, thereby providing a high amount of mass—and thus, kinetic energy—for a given volume. Lead is also cheap, easy to obtain, easy to work, and melts at a low temperature, which results in comparatively easy fabrication of bullets .But lead core is encased in a steel core because the surface of lead bullets fired at high velocity may melt due to hot gases behind and friction with the bore.A thin layer of harder metal (like steel in 7.62x39m)protects the softer lead core when the bullet is passing through the barrel and during flight, which allows delivering the bullet intact to the target.

When you pull the trigger of a gun, a spring mechanism hammers a metal firing pin into the back end of the cartridge, igniting the small explosive charge in the primer. The primer then ignites the propellant—the main explosive which is placed above the primer. As the propellant chemicals burn, they generate lots of gas very quickly. The sudden, high pressure of the gas splits the bullet from the end of the cartridge, forcing it down the gun barrel at extremely high speed . It's only the bullet that fires from the gun; the rest of the cartridge stays where it is. It has to be ejected after firing (sometimes manually, sometimes automatically) to make way for the next cartridge and the next shot.

========

Now since you have got a basic idea of how a round works,let's learn how the AKM rifle works.

- First load the magazine by pressing one cartridge at a time into the top of the magazine.The cartridge must be pushed all the way to the back of the magazine or the front end point of the bullet will hang up in the front.

-Insert the magazine into the magazine slot/well by hooking the front portion of the magazine into its proper notch located at the front of the magazine well.Push the magazine up and rearward at the same time until the magazine locks into place.

- Now to load/chamber the round into the rifle the selector lever located on the right side of the receiver should be pushed to the middle or lower most position(basically set to automatic or single shot).

-Now the charging handle protruding from the right side of the receiver (front edge of the receiver ,above the magazine)must be pulled back.Once it is pulled to the rear of the rifle , release the handle ,and it will move forward on its own to the front end of the receiver to its original position,due to the push of the recoil spring.(please note that the charging handle is integrated to the bolt carrier inside the receiver, the bolt carrier which consist of the piston at top and bolt at the bottom,The bolt is carried inside the bolt carrier, toward the bottom (in line with the barrel.)As you pull the charging handle back you are also pushing back the bolt carrier to the rear.

-As the bolt carrier is pushed back manually ,it press down upon the hammer during its rearward travel;thereby locking the hammer ,into the trigger mechanism(it is locked by the trigger hook).

-Once you release the charging handle ,it is pushed forward by the pressure of compressed recoil spring located at the rear of the bolt carrier ,which get compressed as the bolt carrier moves to the rear.When the charging handle is released the bolt carrier travel forward along with the charging handle.As the bolt carrier move forward ,the bolt face present at the bottom front of the bolt carrier strip the top most cartridge present in the magazine of the rifle and push it inside the chamber of the barrel.The bolt face stop against the rear end of the chamber(also known as breech)The rest of the bolt carrier keep moving forward along with the piston,until the camway present in the bolt carrier rotate the bolt ,as a result of which the lugs present on the bolt locks to the receiver thereby sealing the chamber,thus bringing the bolt carrier to halt.

-Now the cartridge is chambered ,which means that it sits inside the chamber ,with bolt at the chamber face.The bolt on AK is a rotating ,closed bolt.We have already told you that bolt is carried in the bottom of the bolt carrier, the bolt carrier move forward due to the compressed spring acting on it.As the bolt is pushed ahead with the bolt carrier ,it strips the top most round from the top of the magazine and then push that round into the chamber,the bolt itself comes to a halt at the mouth of the chamber.The forward movement of the bolt is stopped by the chamber but the rest of the bolt carrier including the piston above continue to move forward as they do not meet any resistance .Please note that the bolt located at the front of the bolt carrier has come to a stop against the chamber,since the face of the bolt is in direct line with the chamber,but the bolt carrier is still in motion .Now you should know that there is a curved cam track machined at the front top portion of the part of bolt carrier which is housing the bolt,since the bolt has stop moving but the bolt carrier is still moving as there is space above the chamber and the top portion of the bolt carrier is not in line with chamber,as the bolt carrier moves forward over the bolt ,a stud in the bolt comes into contact with the curved cam track on the bolt carrier(top front position).So as this curved cam track passes over the bolt ,the bolt rotate clockwise due to it(just like a train follow the railways tracks, the lug present in the bolt follow the track that is cut out in the top front portion of the bolt housing in the bolt carrier.As the bolt rotates it has two lugs that locks the bolt to the receiver.As the bolt is locked ,as soon as the lower end of the bolt carrier which is in line with the bolt, comes against the bolt head(front portion of the bolt) of the locked bolt ,it is halted by the bolt,bringing the bolt carrier and piston forward movement to halt.Now you know how a cut out part on the bolt carrier causes the bolt to rotate,that's why it is called a rotating bolt.Rotating bolt is required to lock the bolt to the receiver as has been explained to you above.

The bolt on AK is a closed bolt,which means that the hammer will slam against the bolt only when the bolt has locked itself against the chamber.So basically the hammer is withheld by the trigger group, till the time bolt has locked itself against the chamber.The hammer will not act on bolt ,until the bolt has locked against the chamber ,thereby closing the chamber.A hammer will slam against the bolt in a closed bolt,only when the bolt has locked itself at the face of the chamber as explained above hence it is called closed bolt.In a closed bolt When the AK is fired, the bolt is locked by the lugs at the face of the chamber and that contains the pressure of the explosion in the cartridge, until the right time. The "right time" to unlock comes only when the pressure in the chamber subdued down.Again repeating a closed bolt is a bolt which locks and thereby close the face of the chamber ,before any firing happens.Once the bolt has closed the face of the chamber ,only after that hammer can strike the firing pin inside the bolt causing the primer in cartridge to explode.Until a closed bolt present in the ak is locked at the face of the chamber there will be no firing .

Till now it has been made clear to you how pulling back the charging handle pulls back the bolt carrier and how the hammer is locked with the rearward movement of the bolt carrier,how the compressed recoil spring push forward the bolt carrier as soon as you release the charging handle.Then the bolt carrier travel forward with the bolt stripping the rounds and placing it into the chamber (which is called chambering a round).Then how the bolt rotates and lock itself at the face of the chamber(closed bolt).

Now assuming that selector lever is at the lower most position,which is the single shot and you press the trigger .The pressing of the trigger will release the hammer (which was earlier locked by the trigger hook as it was pushed down by the rear ward travelling bolt carrier).As the hammer jump forward ,it strike the rear portion of the firing pin, which run through the bolt with its rear end protruding out of the rear end of the bolt.(firing pin in the ak bolt is a free floating type which is held at its position in the bolt by a retaining pin ,the firing pin run through the bolt.)The rear portion of the firing pin is protruding out of the rear of the bolt ,similarly the front portion of the firing pin is protruding out of the bolt face (front portion of the bolt).Also please note that the bolt head has a spring loaded extractor attached to it through a retaining pin.The extractor is at the front of the bolt face,the extractor has clamp like a claws that grab the rim of the cartridge as the cartridge sit inside the chamber with bolt face at its rear.Now as the hammer fall down on the rear of the bolt ,it hits the protruding firing pin,which is inside a hollow chamber in the bolt,as the firing pin is hit by the hammer ,the tip of the firing pin is pushed ahead through a hole at bolt face,due to the momentum caused by the strike of hammer on the firing pin.The firing pin tip now hit the primer at the rear of the cartridge(you should know that the primer on 7.62x39mm bullets is hard ,insensitive type,which will only set off when the firing pin hit it with a large momentum,which is only possible when the firing pin is pushed by the strike of the hammer)So,as the firing pin hit the primer ,the strike sets off the primer in the cartridge.As soon as the primer is set off ,its energy set off the propellant powder seated above the primer in the cartridge.When the propellant charge set off it generate a high pressure gas that propel the bullet/round( seated above the propellant powder in the cartridge) forward out of the cartridge,as the bullet is pushed forward the barrel by the high pressure gases behind it ,the bullet start spinning due to the rifled grooves cutout in the barrel.This spinning give the bullet its stability while it travel towards the target.

As the bullet is moving out of the barrel towards the muzzle of the barrel,it passes the port (a small hole situated on top part of the barrel),as soon as the bullet passes the port,a small amount of high pressure gas travelling behind the bullet ,makes it way out of the port(small hole on top of the barrel),this small portion of the expanding gas then goes through the gas block situated above the barrel port(following the path of least resistance).As the high pressure gas moves towards the top end of the gas block,it strikes the piston head sitting inside the gas block.Due to this push of the gases on the piston head ,the piston along with the bolt carrier ,charging handle(which are interconnected) ,start moving rearward.When the piston head moves out of the gas block it exposes the semi circular port present in the gas block,which vent out the high pressure gas.Now please note that as the piston and bolt carrier start moving rear ward ,the bolt sitting inside the bolt carrier remains stationary as it is locked to the receiver (as have been explained above)As the bolt is stationary the upper part of the bolt carrier housing the bolt passes over the bolt,as we have told you earlier this upper portion has a pathway /camway cut out on it which had earlier forced the guide lug present in the bolt to travel in a set path,thus rotating it clockwise and locking the bolt.Now when this pathway passes in reverse direction over the bolt ,while going backward the guide lug present in the bolt is forced to travel in the reverse path cut out in this cam way,when it does so it again rotate counterclockwise thus bringing the bolt to its earlier position and unlocking the bolt lugs.This enable the bolt to travel rearward along with the rest of the bolt carrier.Another important point to note is this by the time the above process happen and bolt unlock and move away from the chamber face,the pressure inside the chamber has come down,as all the high pressure gases have been vented out through the gas block and muzzle of the rifle.

Now as the bolt carrier travel rearward the return spring connected to the rear of the piston is compressed,as the bolt carrier is travelling back it pushes down the hammer which is locked by the trigger mechanism(the hammer is locked by the disconnector and the auto sear in the trigger group, as soon as it is pressed down by the bolt carrier group travelling rearward).The bolt carrier ride rearward over two guide rails ,which are placed inside the receiver parallel to each other.As the bolt carrier is travelling backward along with the bolt ,the spent case of the cartridge is also pulled back by the extractor present in the bolt face (as we have told you earlier the extractor is grabbing the rim of the cartridge when the cartridge sits in the chamber before firing )As the cartridge travel backwards along with the bolt ,the ejector strikes the cartridge (ejector is a shark fin type metal protruding out of the top front end of the left guide rail inside the receiver.)As cartridge travelling backwards is hit by the ejector on its way,it causes the cartridge to pivot at the point where it is being held by extraction of the bolt and then fly out of the ejection port(ejection port is a open slot on the right hand side of the ak receiver,present right in front of the ejector,the ejection port is covered when the bolt carrier is at forward position with bolt locked,but as the bolt carrier travel backwards it exposes the ejection port open.)

As the bolt carrier travel to the rear of the rifle ,the energy of the compressed return spring (which is located behind the piston ) push the bolt carrier forward.As the bolt carrier is pushed forward ,the bolt strip the top most round from the magazine and feed it into the chamber,Then the bolt rotate and get locked in the receiver against the chamber face(as has been explained above).As soon as the bolt get locked the bolt carrier comes to a halt.(Please note that the charging handle of the rifle is part of the bolt carrier ,so when the bolt carrier move back and forward the charging handle does the same,that's why it is called a reciprocating charging handle as it reciprocates the movement of the bolt carrier and move backward and forward in a straight line)Now the bolt is locked and a fresh cartridge is chambered.Also do note that during forward travel of the bolt carrier group ,the bolt carrier group press down the auto sear,which unlock the hammer which have been locked by the auto sear as the hammer was pressed down during the rearward travel of the bolt carrier group.However the hammer remain locked down by the disconnector in the trigger group.As you will release the trigger(which you have pressed while firing the rifle),the disconnector will release the hammer ,but before the hammer could come up ,it will be grabbed by the trigger hook present in front of the disconnector in the trigger group.(the hammer will remain in this locked down position till the time trigger is pressed again)When you will once again press the trigger ,it will set the locked hammer free(trigger hook will release the hammer),which will slam against the firing pin present in the bolt,firing pin will act on the primer ,which will set of the propelling charge and thus high pressure gas will push out the bullet ,some of this high pressure gas will travel out of the port ,through the gas block and act on the piston head sitting in the gas block.Imparting a rearward movement to the bolt carrier .Rest the same action will repeat as has been explained above till the time the magazine is empty,once the magazine is empty ,there will be a "click" sound and hammer will become free.You will have to unload the empty magazine and insert a new loaded magazine at this point .Please remember that you will once again have to pull back and release the charging handle with your hands to chamber the first round,this is known as cocking /charging the rifle.As you are required to manually charge the rifle ,every time you insert a fresh magazine with the hammer in a "free position" -(hammer has not been locked by the trigger group).

Now you have a basic idea of how an AK operate in a single shot mode.In the full automatic mode most of the action is similar to the single shot mode.The major difference is that in a full auto mode only the auto sear(in the trigger group) act on the hammer .As a result as the hammer is pressed down by the rear ward travel of the bolt carrier group ,the hammer is locked by the auto sear.As the bolt carrier group travel forward ,it press down the auto sear thereby releasing the hammer.Here unlike the single shot mode ,the disconnector(in the trigger group) does not act on the hammer ,Hence it is only the auto sear which locks and unlock the hammer with the rearward and forward movement of the bolt carrier group.

When bolt carrier group travel rearward ,it push down the hammer ,which is locked by the auto sear.As the bolt carrier group is pushed back by the return spring and it return to its position at front,it press down the auto sear in its forward travel,unlocking the hammer,which then slam against the firing pin.Therefore in auto mode ,unless the magazine is empty or the trigger is released ,the hammer will continue to slam against the firing pin ,as soon as the bolt carrier group travel forward and the bolt lock itself against the chamber, due to the movement of the bolt carrier group during firing of a round.(Please refer to the photos to understand properly)

=======

Please understand the basic fundamentals of the trigger mechanism in the single shot mode and auto mode.

The trigger mechanism /trigger group consist of the these 4 major parts Hammer,Disconnector ,trigger hook,Auto sear.

Out of this Hammer ,as the name suggest it is used to hit the firing pin.The hammer is standing tall ,at front when it is free.As it is pressed down it get locked into the trigger mechanism,as soon as it get unlocked/released it jumps forward to return to its original position due to tension in its spring.As it jump forward it slam against the firing pin.

Now the disconnector ,trigger hook and auto sear are the parts of the trigger group which lock down the hammer when the hammer is pressed down.

Disconnector -is the one which lock down the hammer as the hammer is pressed down with the trigger pressed.The disconnector release the hammer as soon as the trigger is released.

Trigger hook - Trigger hook is the part which lock down the hammer when the hammer is pressed down (without pressing the trigger-during manually charging the rifle) or as soon as the trigger is released.When you release the trigger ,this trigger hook will lock the hammer (if the hammer is already pressed down during the time of the trigger release).

Auto sear -Auto sear is the one which locks down the hammer ,as the bolt carrier group travel rearward and press down the hammer.The hammer is released by the auto sear as soon as the bolt carrier group travel back to the front and press down the auto sear ;releasing/unlocking the hammer.

==========

In single shot mode-

In single shot mode as the hammer is pressed down by the rearward travel of the bolt carrier group ,the hammer is locked by the Auto sear and the disconnector.As the bolt carrier group is pushed by the compressed spring and it travel back to the front -

Auto sear -as the bolt carrier group travel to the front it press down the auto sear ,thereby releasing the hammer from the auto sear.
(auto sear will lock the hammer when bolt carrier group travel back,will unlock the hammer when the bolt carrier group travel forward)

Disconnector -Even though the hammer has been released by the auto sear,it will remain locked down by the disconnector.The disconnector keep the hammer locked down till the time ,the trigger is kept pressed.(trigger is in pressed postion)
(Disconnector will lock the hammer ,as the hammer is pressed down by the bolt carrier group.Disconnector will release the hammer as soon as the trigger is released)

Trigger hook -As soon as the trigger is released the disconnector release the hammer,as the hammer becomes free it jump forward but it is caught and locked by the trigger hook.Thereby,with the trigger released and back at its position,the hammer is locked down by the trigger hook.
(Trigger hook will lock the hammer,when the trigger is released with the hammer pressed down;trigger hook will release the hammer when the trigger is pressed)

As the trigger is pressed the hammer will be released by the trigger hook and it will be free to slam against the firing pin.

=========

In Full auto mode

In the full auto mode as the hammer is pressed down by the rearward travel of the bolt carrier group ,the hammer is locked down by the Auto sear only .As the bolt carrier group is pushed by the compressed spring and it travel back to the front it is -

Auto sear -as the bolt carrier group travel to the front it press down the auto sear ,thereby releasing the hammer from the auto sear.As in the full auto mode auto sear is the only part of the trigger group acting on the hammer ,as soon as the hammer is released by the auto sear it will jump forward and slam against the firing pin.Thereby the auto sear will lock and unlock the hammer with the rearward and forward movement of the bolt carrier group.
(auto sear will lock the hammer when bolt carrier group travel back,will unlock the hammer when the bolt carrier group travel forward)

Disconnector - The disconnector does not act on the hammer in full auto mode.As the selector is switched to the full auto mode ,it pull back the disconnector ,thereby disconnector is kept away from acting on the hammer in anyway.
(Disconnector will not act(lock) on the hammer in full auto mode)

Trigger hook -In full auto mode the trigger hook will only catch/lock the hammer when the trigger is released ,thereby it will stop any further firing .
(Trigger hook will lock the hammer,when the trigger is release with the hammer pressed down;trigger hook will release the hammer when the trigger is pressed)

As the trigger is pressed in full auto mode ,trigger hook will release the hammer and it will be free to slam against the firing pin .

This is how single shot and full auto works.

======

Trigger Summary -

In single shot mode

Auto sear

-lock the hammer ,when the hammer is pressed down by the rearward travelling bolt carrier group.

-Release the hammer ,when the bolt carrier group travel forward ,pressing down the auto sear

Disconnector

-Lock the hammer,when the hammer is pressed down by the rearward travelling bolt carrier group.(with the trigger pressed)

-Release the hammer ,when the trigger is released.

Trigger hook

-Lock the hammer ,when the hammer is pressed down by the rearward travelling bolt carrier group.(with the trigger in free position /not pressed)

-Lock the hammer when the hammer is released by the disconnector with the trigger release.

-Release the hammer when the trigger is pressed.

In FULL AUTO

Auto sear -

-lock the hammer ,when the hammer is pressed down by the rearward travelling bolt carrier group.

-Release the hammer ,when the bolt carrier group travel forward ,pressing down the auto sear.

Disconnector

Do not act on the hammer.

Trigger hook

-Lock the hammer ,when the hammer is pressed down by the rearward travelling bolt carrier group.(with the trigger in free position /not pressed)

-Lock the hammer when the pressed trigger is released and the hammer is pressed down.

-Release the hammer when the trigger is pressed.

The standard definition of an AK 47/AKM assault rifle is that it is a gas operated ,long stroke rifle with a rotating ,closed bolt and a reciprocating charging handle.The rifle can fire in single and automatic mode.

The high pressure gases produced by the propellant charges in the cartridge pushes out the bullet out of the barrel and some part of the same gas travel through the port in the barrel to the gas block where it hit the piston head.Pushing the piston and the bolt carrier group rearward .Then once at rear the bolt carrier group is pushed forward by the compressed spring at the rear.As the bolt carrier group return to front the bolt chamber the next round and lock itself against the chamber.Until the time ,the hammer once again strike the firing pin that hit the primer of the cartridge ,which set off the propellant powder present in the cartridge producing high pressure gases,which pushes down the round and again some part escape through the port repeating the above mentioned cycle.Thus the rifle is gas operated .The action(movement of the bolt carrier group) is due to the expanding gasses acting on it.

The piston used in the ak 47 is a long metal rod with head ,this rod is connected to the bolt carrier and bolt ,when the piston moves the bolt carrier group moves along with it as part of one interconnected group ,hence it is called long stroke piston(piston,bolt carrier and bolt are connected into one body.)

In short stroke piston ,the piston is not connected to the bolt carrier .It is independent of the bolt carrier,which does not move along with the bolt carrier.

In a gas impingement ,there is no piston the gas directly act on the bolt carrier,pushing it backwrds.

As the curved cam track machined in the bolt carrier move forward over the bolt ,the lug in the bolt engages in it forcing the bolt to rotate clockwise and thus being locked to the receiver.Similarly as the bolt carrier cam track move backwards over the bolt ,the same lug in the bolt travel backwards in the tracks present in the bolt carrier ,rotating the bolt anticlockwise thus unlocking the bolt.This is the reason the bolt is called rotating bolt.

As the bolt carrier group travel forward the bolt rotates clockwise and locks itself to the receiver against the chamber face ,thus closing the chamber face.The hammer will hit the firing pin, when the bolt has locked against the chamber face as by the time bolt carrier push down the auto sear, releasing the hammer, the bolt has already locked against the chamber.Therefore by the time the hammer slam against the firing pin ,the bolt is already locked against the chamber face ,that's why it is a closed bolt.

When the bolt carrier move rearward and forward in its operating cycle during the firing ,the charging handle of the rifle move along with it as it is integrated to the bolt carrier,basically the charging handle move back and front in a straight line ,thereby it is called a reciprocating charging handle.

We have already explained to you how it operates in a single and automatic mode,hope now beside the definition of AK 47/AKM ,you also know the reason behind it.
 

Levina

Social media admin
Moderator
Joined
Dec 2, 2017
Messages
143
Reactions
438 21 0
#4
AKs part-3


Now without wasting any more time,let's come to the crux of the matter.Suppose a war broke out,fight has come right at your doorstep.With firefights raging on in your city.At such time you come across an ak rifle lying next to a dead soldier,with an instinct of self defence, you pick up the rifle,but have no idea what to do with it.Hence it's about time you learn the basic of how to operate an AK .

While handling the AK or any other firearm, you should always remember the 4 basic rules of gun safety.

1) The rifle is always loaded -treat the gun as loaded all the time.

2) Never point the rifle at Something you are not prepared to destroy - always be aware of the direction the muzzle of your rifle is pointing.

3) Always be sure of your target and what is behind it - Bullets can go through and beyond your intended target. Knowing what’s behind your target is an essential step to safety.

4) Keep your finger Off the trigger until your sights are on the target - Always keep your fingers away from the trigger, unless you intend to shoot.

========

Unloading of the AKM rifle (Please also refer to the photos given below )
1512986333021.png


1512986346102.png


1512986356719.png

You should always keep these basic rules of the safety mentioned above in your mind ,to ensure the safety of yourself and people around you.Now with the AKM in your hand , first you should check the position of the selector lever of the rifle(it is a metal lever present on the right side of the receiver of AKM ,right above the trigger){*censored* this facebook format of not allowing to post the photos in between the post} .There are marking on the receiver in front of the selector lever depicting the different modes on an AKM .These marking are different depending on the country of origin of the AKM .However you should always keep this in mind that the topmost position of the selector lever on an AKM is always safe,middle one is full automatic or burst and the bottom one is single.keeping this in mind check the position of the selector lever ,if it is at the top ,it is at safe ,if not then push the lever to the top most position and bring the rifle to safe position -it prevents the rifle from firing.Next you would like to remove the rifle magazine to check the wether there are rounds in it ,and if there are how many of them.For this you will have have to push the magazine latch forward, towards the magazine (magazine latch is a metal latch vertically placed in between the front of the trigger guard and the rear of the magazine slot(magazine slot is a hollow opening present at the bottom of the receiver,through which you feed or connect the magazine to the rifle).Once you have pushed the magazine latch forward ,swing the magazine forward and out of the receiver ,it will come out.Once the magazine is out, put it aside.Now with your finger bring down the selector lever to bottom end position/single shot position .From your support hand pull the operating /charging handle of the rifle fully to the rear ( charging handle will be the sideward protruding metal handle present at the front end of the right hand side of the receiver ,just where the handguard meet the receiver below the rear sight of the AKM .This needs to be done because once you pull the charging handle to the back it will eject out any round left in the rifle or the round will fell of through the magazine well.One thing to note is that when you will pull back the the charging handle it will return back to its original position at the front,this is because of the spring attached to it at the rear,so once you pull charging handle fully to the rear ,let it return to its position ,it's completely normal.Also do note that unless the safety lever is either on automatic or single shot ,the charging handle will not travel back fully to the rear.For eg if the selector lever is at topmost position which is the safe position the charging handle will only travel back to a certain distance,but would be blocked to travel fully to the rear,as the it will be blocked b the trigger group as safety precaution to travel back.So,always keep in mind to switch off the safety to pull the charging handle back in an AKM.Once you have pulled the charging handle to the rear and let it return to its original position , repeat it for atleast 2 times ,then pull back the charging handle and hold it back with your hands and visually check the receiver and the rifle chamber for any round (through the opening in the ejection port which will be open at this point of time).Once you have made sure that there is no round left in the rifle .Now point the rifle up toward the sky and pull the trigger,this is known as dry fire,it is done to make sure that there is no round left in the rifle.

=======

Now you have made sure that there is no rounds in the rifle,push the selector lever to top/safety and put aside the rifle.Get hold of the magazine and visually inspect whether there are any rounds in it or not .If there are any rounds in the magazine ,push the topmost round from its backside and slide the round out from the front end of the magazine .Once you have slide the top round out,the lower round will automatically come up in its place,like this unload all the rounds from the magazine.Please note that you will have to slide the round forward to get it out,it will never come out directly from top in an AKM.After you have unloaded the magazine keep it aside.With this you have successfully completed the unloading of the AKM you have just found.Now it is secured and safe ,without any risk or danger of accidental discharge.

Loading and charging/cocking of the AKM rifle(please refer to the photos)

1512986283704.png


1512986313145.png

An unloaded rifle is akin to a stick,you must load the rifle to transform it into a deadly weapon .To do this first you pick up the rounds which you have unloaded earlier from the AKM magazine,these rounds will be 7.62x39mm in diameter.The magazine of the AKM will have a lip like design at its top -open end;since these resemble lips these are known as feed lips.The purpose of these feed lips is to hold the round in a correct position inside the magazine ,so that the round can be placed inside the chamber of the barrel correctly from the magazine.Now use you support hand to hold the magazine ,with front of the magazine toward your fingertips. With your dominant hand ,one at a time ,place the round over the top ,open end of the magazine between the feed lips.Then press the round straight down until it snaps under the feed lips.Once the round is under the feed lip of the magazine ,slide it fully to the rear of the magazine ,so the next round will be allowed to pushed down.Like this load all the rounds.Please do note that if a round is protruding/coming out of the magazine from the front ,it will not allow the other round to be inserted,hence it is important that all the rounds are placed fully to the rear of the magazine .An AKM magazine can hold 30 rounds ,but to avoid overloading of the magazine spring you should only load only 29 rounds max at a time,with eventually one round in a chamber of the rifle and other 28 in magazine .This is required to avoid malfunctioning of the magazine .

The front ,top end of the magazine has a small protruding part by design .This help to hook the magazine to the rifle.First insert this protruding part of the magazine into the front end of the slot present in the AkM receiver.Once the front end of the magazine is hooked to the slot of the rifle,pivot the magazine to this point and insert the rear,top end of the magazine in the slot present in the receiver and pull the magazine back,until it locks into its position ,the magazine latch will produce a loud click when the magazine is secured in the slot,as it is this spring loaded latch ,that locks the rear of the magazine in the slot and holds the magazine securely in its place.If the magazine has not been seated properly ,it will fall down on its own.This method of inserting the magazine in an AKM is called rocking ,where you hook the front end of the magazine in the rifle slot at an angle,then you pivot at the front end and lock the rear end of the magazine in the slot by inserting it in the slot and pulling it to the rear.

After a magazine is secured in the rifle,use you support hand to pull the charging handle(already explained above) to the rear end of the rifle and then let it go back to its original position on its own;allow the recoil spring to do its job and seat the bolt; this is known as cocking or charging the rifle.Cocking or charging the rifle load the topmost round in the magazine to the rifle chamber ,and make the hammer or striker(A metal rod or plate that typically drives a firing pin to strike the cartridge primer to detonate the powder.) ready to strike the firing pin(a pin which will hit the bullet primer to ignite the powder and propel the bullet out of the muzzle )once the safety is off and the trigger is pulled ,thus resulting in actual firing of the round .Cocking or charging the rifle also facilitates the ejection of a spent shell casing or a unfired round from the chamber of the rifle.

You should also keep in mind that,there are only certain time when you are required to manually charge or cock the rifle,such as when you insert a fresh magazine in the rifle,or to clears a stoppage such as a jam, double feed, stovepipe or misfire.Once you fire a round ,the gas generated from it will drive the charging handle to the rear and then back to its original place at front ,automatically feeding the next round in the chamber.The charging handle of the AKM is a reciprocating one ,which means that the charging handle is a part of the bolt carrier. When the carrier reciprocates, the handle also move back and forward.Thus you have a fast moving charging handle every time you fire the rifle.A reciprocating charging handle gives the user total control over the movement of the bolt and bolt carrier, and allows a lot of force to be used to chamber or extract stubborn or ruptured cartridges. It can also serve as a visual indicator of a malfunction or an empty magazine without needing to look at the ejection port. It's also efficient from a manufacturing and design standpoint.But this also mean that you will have a fast moving external part in the receiver of the AKM ,while you are shooting the rifle.So you have to be careful to keep you hands away from that part of the rifle,or else it may cause injuries.

========

A brief summary -

Load -Place a round between the feed lips at the top of the magazine ,press it down until it locks inside the magazine.Repeat until you have inserted at least 29 rounds at max or lesser number of rounds minimum.

Insert -Hook the top-front end of the magazine to the receiver slot,by moving it forward.Then pivot it to enter the rear-top end of the magazine in the slot and pull the magazine to the rear,until you hear a click sound,which signifies that magazine catch has locked the magazine to the rifle.

Loading the round into the chamber - Now you have loaded the magazine and inserted and secured it to the rifle.Next part is to bring down the selector lever present at the right side of the receiver ,just above the trigger.Once the selector is down ,it means that safety is off,now pull the charging handle present at the front end of the right hand side of the receiver with your hands to the rear end of the receiver and let it go,it will travel back to its original position at the front end of the receiver and while doing so will strip the top most round from the magazine and place it in the chamber ,it will also set the hammer/striker of the trigger group ready to strike the firing pin present in the bolt carrier.

Now only thing left for you is to point the muzzle of the rifle toward the thing you want to destroy and press the trigger,as soon as you press the trigger the rifle will fire a round ,if you have placed the selector lever at the middle the rifle will fire in full automatic or burst mode till the time you hold the trigger down or till the time all the rounds are emptied from the magazine.It will fire a single round every time you press the trigger ,if you have positioned the selector lever to the bottom most position which is for single fire,in this it will fire a round every time you press the trigger. Please do keep in mind that you have to manually pull back the charging handle only once in the beginning ,when you have inserted a fresh magazine ,rest it will automatically extract and eject the casing of the round fired through ejecting the port and then chamber the next round as you fire a round from the rifle.

When you are done shooting always push the selector lever to the top most position and making the safety on.

You have an idea of how to unload,load and shoot your AK ,now you should learn how to aim accurately from it,using both iron sights and optics.But ,you may say isn't AK all about spray and pray?No,it is not.The sighting and aiming in AK is plain and simple,once you get a hang of it.You need to understand the basic principle behind it and spend some time with the rifle,after which you can do wonders with it.AK is very accurate for what it does,that is killing humans,you can easily place your shots at man size target upto 300m accurately.AK is a battle rifle and it is meant for combat,if you do your work of zeroing and aiming the rifle correctly the rifle will do its work just fine,you will hit exactly where you intend to hit,so just throw out this spray and pray theory being propagated by people who have no idea what an AK is.

=====

Iron sights on the AK (please refer to the photos)

The sights are used to aim the rifle at the target for firing at various ranges.They are mounted on the barrel and consist of the front and the rear sight.

Rear Iron sight

-The rear sight is Rear-‘U’ Notch, Graduated, Ramp type sliding elevator, it consist of a base on which there is sight leaf;on which various marking are inscribed depicting range in meters.

-The sight leaf have markings for shooting at different distances measured in meters.The adjustments are intended to change the ballistic trajectory so that point of aim and point of impact are the same at the respective distance selected on the sight.

-The sight leaf has odd numbers inscribed on the right side from 1 to 9 ,which represent the ranges of 100 to 900 meters .On the left side there are inscribed numbers 2 to 10,which correspond to ranges of 200 to 1000 meters.On the left side of the sight leaf is the letter "p"(Symbol could be different depending on the country of origin).It is located at the rear most position on the sight leaf below the number 1.

-The rear sight is adjusted by moving the slide up and down the sight until reaching the desired distance setting.You can set the rear sight for the desired range by pressing on the slide catch and moving the slide bar along the sight leaf until the front of the bar is aligned with the line below the number that corresponds with the range in meters.The slide is considered set for a specific setting when it is matched with the line under the number.

- A rear sight will appear like a “U” to your eyes while aiming.

Front Iron sight

- The front iron sight is Fore-Pillar type.
- In simple terms the front sight has vertical stud in the centre which appears like an "I" ,this "I" is refered to as front sight post.

-This front sight post is covered by protecting ears,oval shaped recess from both the sides,just imagine two ears placed around an "I" instead of your face.These protective metal ears are provided to protect the front sight post or "I" as you may know from the blows of wind or any other damage , this not only help in bringing stability to the front post /"I" but also help in sighting.These two ears only cover the front post from side ,but it is left open from the top ,so as to allow the adjustment of front post by sighting tool.

- The front post can be moved to left or right to adjust windage or can be screwed up or down to adjust elevation in relation to the point of impact of the bullet.Moving the front sight post to the left ,right,up or down by 1mm,changes the Point of impact (POI) 26CM AT 100M.One full turn on the front post ,moves POI 20 cm at 100m.

-The round section at the upper section of the front sight block(above the cut out area) is the foresight stud/windage drum,this can be moved left or right to adjust windage for zero.

==========

Now the basic fundamental of using the iron sight is -
1512986382729.png


1512986558944.png

You have a front sight post, that makes an “I” shape and a notched rear sight that makes a “U” shape. You put the front sight post "I"right in the middle of the notch of the rear sight"U". The tops of the front sight post and rear sights should line up perfectly, and the front sight should have the same amount of space within the rear sights to the left and right.When you aim, you focus all your attention on the front sight, observing its alignment with the rear sight. The rear sight should be slightly blurred, but the front sight should be crystal clear.The target or portion you are aiming at should be at the top end of the front sight post.Just imagine a red dot at the top of the front sight post or "I" .The bullet fired from your rifle will hit wherever the red dot is pointing at,if the rifle is zeroed correctly for that range.So in simple terms align both your sights by looking from the rear sight at the front sight post "I".You will have a "U" with "I" in between ,now focus only on the "I" and let the "U"get blurred.Whatever you aim for ,should appears at the top of the "I" it is your point of aim,the point of impact will depend on the range of the target and rear sight setting,how the sights are zeroed and aligned for that range.The human eye can focus clearly on only one object at a time. For accurate shooting, it is important to focus on the tip of the front sight post throughout the aiming process. Remember that this weapon is point of aim ,point of impact, so if focus is directed to the target the sights will drift ever so slightly, disrupting correct sight alignment and causing inaccurate and erratic shots.

Please do remember it is not that where you aim your rifle(point of aim),the bullet will hit the target at that point(point of impact).The point where bullet hit depend on many factors like the range set at your rear iron sights,the range at which the rifle is zeroed ,winds etc depending on this the bullet will hit +/_ of the point of aim,if the range of the target matches the range set in the rear sight and your rifle is properly zeroed for that range then the point of impact will match the point of aim,basically bullet will hit target at the same point you are aiming.

=======

Bullet trajectory

Trajectory of a bullet, is the actual path that the bullet follows after leaving the muzzle of a rifle.Hence the path of the bullet when it exit the muzzle of a rifle when fired ,is called its trajectory.

Bullets trajectory is affected by gravity , when it leave the barrel, it no longer have any physical support, such as the brass, the box, your pocket, the magazine, the chamber, or the barrel, so it begin to fall. In addition, it is traveling through air, so air resistance progressively slows its flight. On most occasions the barrel is slanted upward slightly to compensate for this immediate drop; thus, for all but extreme shots, since the barrel is aimed slightly upward, the bullet rise slightly after it leaves the barrel, but the bullet never rises above the axis of the barrel.That's why bullet trajectory generally make an arc. (Just like a football generally rises above the player when they throw a pass. The longer the pass, the greater the starting angle, and the higher the "rise" before the ball begins to fall.)If the barrel is horizontal to the surface of the earth when fired, the bullet never rises above the barrel, and gravity causes an immediate descent.

There are many external factors affecting bullet trajectory beside the gravity such as muzzle velocity of the rifle,air resistance,altitude or air density,temperature,Line of sight,line of departure ,zero range,Wind and angles at which bullet is fired.You need to keep all these in mind while shooting,and to make required adjustment in your rifle to shoot accurately.


Zeroing and adjusting the rifle sight-

Zeroing your rifle simply means configuring your sights, iron or optics, so that at some desired distance, your line of sight perfectly intersects the path of the bullet.In simple terms the purpose of zeroing is to align the sights with the weapon’s barrel given standard issue ammunition. When this is accomplished correctly, the point of aim and the point of impact are the same at a given range.For example if you zero your rifle for 100 meters,it means that when you aim at a target at 100 meter through the iron sight or the the optics the bullet will hit that target at 100 meters at the point you are aiming at,basically while zeroing for 100 meters your goal will be to adjust your front sight so that with the rear sight adjusted to “1” your point of aim / point of impact will be the same at 100 meters.Once you have zeroed in your rifle you can slide your rear sight to different distance setting depending on the distance you are shooting(100 meter, 200 meter,300 meter, etc.)and your Point of aim and point of impact should remain the same,if the rifle is correctly zeroed in.

==========

When you get hold of the AK ,it will be great if the sights are already zeroed in properly.But if not ,you would require to zero in the rifle ,so that you can fire accurately for maximum effect.There are many method for zeroing a 7.62x39mm ak,here we will discuss about zeroing the ak sights at 100 meters,this is an old soviet way of zeroing the front iron sight of the rifle mentioned in the Soviet AK 47 Manual.There are many other methods to zero an AK rifle but this is one of the best and most authentic,so is being explained here .

1 You would require a C-clamp style sight tool to adjust the front sight in the AK for windage and elevation adjustments.To move the point of impact left or right (windage),to move the point of impact up or down (elevation).Search the dead body of the soldier for it or try to source it from someone who has an AK.If you don't have this -a hammer and an empty cartridge case,will suffice.Place the spent case on the round drum at the side of front iron sight and tap gently,moving the front sight post to the left ,right,up or down by 1mm,changes the Point of impact (POI) 26CM AT 100M.A front sight tool specifically made for this purpose is included in the cleaning kit normally stored in the rifle butt trap.One complete revolution of the front sight will move the point of impact 20 cm at 100m,screw it down and the point of impact goes up,move the front sight up and the point of impact goes down.

2 Cut a cardboard in dark colour ,preferably black in dimensions 25cm in width and 35cm in height (14 x 10"),this will serve as your confirmation target.The logic behind using this dimension is that at 100 meters the front sight post will appear the same width as the black target box. It will be easy to line up the sights so that the black box sits perfectly on top of the front sight post. The edges of the front sight post and the black box should line up perfectly.Attach this black rectangle to the centre of a white background target of 1 m in height and 0.5 cm width.The middle point of the lower edge of the confirmation target(black rectangle) serves as the aimpoint.It should approximately be at the eye level of the shooter.The normal position of the mean point of impact (MPI) should be marked with a chalk or coloured marker on a perpendicular line at a distance of 25cm above the aimpoint.This point will be called control point (CP).The centre of the circle is used for the control point on a confirmation target.

3 Once you have done the above step,place your target and position yourself at exactly 100m distance from the target.

4 Set your rear sight at position "3",this means that the rear sight is set for a distance of 300m.

5 As we have told you earlier that at 100m distance the width of the black centre target will match with the width of the front sight post on an AK rifle.When you are aiming at it from a distance of 100m the black target(confirmation target) will appear as an extension of the front sight post .

4 Now lie down in a prone position as it is the most stable firing position .Place your rifle on a support base ,it could be anything for eg a sandbag ,a table or anything which could provide a stable platform for your rifle,if there are lower rails in your AK handguard,you can also attach a bipod to it .All this is required to maintain the maximum stability while shooting ,so as to ensure the maximum accuracy.

5 Put the top of the front sight post on the centre of the lower edge of the confirmation target or the black line which divide the black conformation target and the lighter colour target ,where the confirmation target has been placed at the centre.So basically aim at the center of the bottom edge of the black portion of the confirmation target.As the edge where the confirmation target and the target where it is placed will be of high contrast due to their different colours ,aim at the center of black line at the bottom of the confirmation target dividing it from the main target.

6 Now fire at least 4 single shots from the same firing position ,each one aimed at the center of the bottom edge of the confirmation target ,as discussed above in point

7 The shot group is considered normal if all four bullet holes or three(with one flyer) will fit in a circle of 15cm diameter.If this criteria is not met the firing is repeated.Upon a second unsatisfactory firing result failing to achieve a normal group ,please check your rifle for any damage or problem and rectify it.

8 For determination of the mean point of impact of four bullet holes :
- Join the two closest holes with a straight line and divide the distance between these holes in half.
- join this midpoint with a third hole and divide the distance between them into three equal part/segment.

- Join the segment mark closest to the first two bullet holes to the fourth bullet hole,and divide this line into four equal segments.

-The point that is at the third segment mark from the fourth bullet hole is the mean point of impact of four bullet holes.

9 Another easy way to determine the mean point of impact is that join the first bullet hole with second bullet hole with a straight line ,now join the other two remaining third and fourth bullet holes by drawing a straight line between the two,basically join the 4 bullet holes in pairs of two ,so that in the end you should get two lines.Now join the midpoints of both lines in form of third line.Allast divide this third line in half.The middle point of the third line will be your mean point of impact.

10 If all four bullet holes do not fit in a circle of 15 cm diameter,then it is permitted to determine the mean point of impact using the three most accurately positioned bullet holes under the condition that the fourth holes deviates from the mean point of impact of the other three bullet by more than 2.5radius of the circle that contain these three holes.

To determine the mean point of impact of three bullet holes ,you should

- Join the closest bullet holes with a straight line(line 1) and divide the distance between them in half.
-Join this mid point(on line 1) with the third hole and divide the distance between them into three equal parts/segment(line 2).

The point of segment in line 2, closest to the first two holes will be the mean point of impact.

11) If during the firing of single shots the mean point of impact deviates from the control point in any direction by more than 5 cm,the position of the front sight is changed appropriately.To achieve the proper zero adjust the front sight post with the help of AK sight adjustment tool.If you want to move the bullet’s impact to the left, then you need to move the front sight post to the right. If you want to move the bullet’s impact to the right, then you need to move the front sight post to the left.Similarly ,If you want to move the bullet’s impact up, then the front sight post should be screwed in (down). If you want to move the bullet’s impact down, it should be screwed out (up).So basically you should move the front sight post in the opposite direction that you want your bullet impact to move.A 1 mm lateral displacement(right-left) of the front sight will move the mean point of impact 26cm at 100 meters.One complete revolution of the front sight will move the mean point of impact 20cm in elevation(up-down) at 100 meters.Confirm the adjustment done by firing shot at the target after adjustment .

12) Adjust the sights and repeat till the time you achieve zero,where the mean point of impact should coincide with the control point,or deviate from it any direction by not more than 5 cm,that is,it should not extend beyond the the boundaries of the small circle of the firing target.This is because a properly zeroed rifle with the rear sight set on “3” which means 300m ,will hit 25cm high on a target at 100 meters(which you have already set as control point with help of a marker) ,as per the ballistic and trajectory of a 7.62x39mm round .

13) When you have zeroed in your rifle,as mentioned above ,then Set the rear sight to the “1” position which means 100m and fire 4 shots at the target(SAME TARGET SET AT 100M) and verify your zero.You are already at 100m and have achieved the zero ,now with rear sight setting at 1(100m)your point of impact would match the point of aim,with group not larger than 6 inches in diameter.

14) Once you have zeroed in your rifle properly,your point of aim will match your point of impact ,when the range is in correspondence with your rear sight setting.For eg at rear sight setting 1 point of aim and point of impact will match at 100 meters ,at setting 2 it will match at range of 200m ,at setting 3 it will match at range of 300m and so on.

12 The logic behind using 300m setting at 100m for zeroing is that this will confirm the zero for distance as far as 300m without going to the 300m range.You can easily confirm the zero for 100m and 300m at the same range.Once you’ve achieved your “zero,” you’ll use the rear sight to change your elevation to accommodate longer ranges.

Battlesight Zero (BZO)

Now you might think that in the heat of combat how will you always get the time to adjust your sight for different range during a firefight,you are right no one does.For combat we have what is called battle sight zero.A battle sight zero (BZO) is a sight setting that soldiers keep on their weapons,which will enable engagement of point targets from 0–300 meters without adjusting the elevation of the iron sights from point blank range or zero meters out to 300 meters.This setting has been is not particularly any kind of “zero” , but it is simply a setting that can allow the shooter to make hits somewhere on torso size targets (either slightly above, equal to, or slightly below point-of-aim) out to 300 meters. For battle sight zero we bring our rear sight setting slider to the rear-most position where it will be marked with P,S,or N depending on the country of origin of that particular AK,and leave it there.With a correctly zeroed rifle on battle sight zero you will be able to hit target at this setting from 0 to 300m ,with point of impact within +/- 10 inches of your point of aim. The 7.62x39mm bullet trajectory will cause the point of impact to vary with range either above or below the point of aim depending on the distance to the target. We are not trying to hit the center bulls eye, just in the torso area without having to worry about constantly adjusting the rear sight.

For combat shooting there is a very simple and basic technique of shooting ,it is called the belt buckle technique.In this technique if your rifle is zeroed correctly,then bring your rear sight to the rear most position or the setting "P".Basically bring your rifle to battle sight zero setting (as have been explained above).Now at this setting always aim at the belt buckle ,or where the belt buckle would be of your target,this will give you the ability to easily hit a torso size target up to the range of 300m ,without adjusting your sights.Basically with your sight setting at battle sight zero and your point of aim at the belt buckle your shots will always hit the kill zone ,on a torso size target up to the range of 300m.

=======

Establishing Battle Zero

1512986517354.png


The following procedure will establish a zero at 14 m (near) and 250 meters(far) FOR 7.62X39MM.This procedure will not only establish a battle zero but will also calibrate your range indicators on the rear tangent sight with the slider.For battle zero you will slide the rear sight slider to the rear most position.Different countries mark this setting differently,but in Russian it is indicated with a "P".

Please follow the following steps for Battle zero at 14 meters.


-Slide the spring loaded slider down the rear sight until the range scale P mark is aligned with the top of the slider.

-Carefully aim and fire each shot of a 3-shot group at a paper target set up at 14m.If your shots are not striking your point of aim,then adjust your sights.

-To raise the point of impact of your shots,rotate the front sight post in the down direction(clockwise)

-To lower the point of impact rotate the front sight post in the up direction(counterclockwise)

-To move the point of impact of your shots to left,move the front sight post to right.

-To move the point of impact of your shots right ,move the front sight post to left.

-Continue to fire 3-shot group and adjust the sights ,until you have a tight group at point of aim.

-Once you achieve a tight group at your point of aim,you have achieved battle zero,all other ranges on the elvation scale are also zeroed,for eg to engage a target at 500m ,slide the rear sight to 5.

-Once the weapon is zeroed ,you can let the slider rest on the battle sight zero for shooting from 0-300 meters without changing the setting of rear sight.While using a battle zero you will have to remember the ballistic trajectory of the 7.62x39mm round at 14 meter battle zero and adjust your point of aim accordingly,so that your shots can hit the target.Your all shots will be +- 7 inches(above or below your point of aim) till 300meter,with your point of aim and point of impact matching at two places one 14meter and other at 250 meters.If you keep your point of aim at the belt buckle of a human you will hit him up to the range of 300 meter with the same rear sight setting of battle zero ,indicated by symbol P in russian akm.For the ranges greater than zero it is advised to adjust your rear sight for that range.

The fundamentals of the iron sights on AK47/akm have been explained to you,now let's talk about the optics.There are variety of optics which can be used in an AK but today we will talk about reflex or red dot sight,which is preferred by modern AK shooters.

Unlike iron sights that require shooters to shift their focus from rear sight to front sight to target, reflex sights allows shooters to place the red dot directly over the target. In high stress situation like combat you don't need to align your sights ,just place the dot over your target and shoot.A red dot sight not only provide a increased speed of shooting ,but also simply your aiming and give you that extra edge which is required in situations of life and death.In red dot sight ,if you can see a red dot, and the red dot is on your target, the bullet will hit the target. No aligning sights. No sharp front sight and blurry target.

When it comes to Ak 47/AKM you can mount optics through side rail,rear sight rail,railed dust cover,railed gas tube or railed handguard.

We will discuss here how to use the red dot sight on AK47/AKM and how to zero a red dot sight on AK.

There are two methods to zero a red dot sight on AK :

-First method is called co-witness.A co-witness is basically lining up /aligning your iron sights with the red dot sight.In this your point of aim will be same in iron sight as well as the red dot sight.In a proper co-witness sight picture, the red dot should rest on the tip of the front sight post of iron sight. Assuming the iron sights have been zeroed properly for a range, the point of aim and point of impact should match at that range,when shooting from red dot.When you are in combat your red dot sight might give up due to damage,or drainage of batteries at such times you can rely on your iron sights ,which you can see through your optics in the need arise.With co-witness you can still use your iron sights while using your optics,a co-witness gives you the ability to use the iron sights through the optic.

To co-witness your red dot sights with the iron sights,you first need to zero your iron sights at a particular range.We have already explained to you what zeroing means and how it can be done in AK iron sights.Once you have zeroed your iron sights then you will have to mount your optic in such a way that the red dot sight is in between the front sigh and the rear sight.The optic should be mounted in such a way that the front sight post should be visible through the optic in the middle from the rear sight.Once you have properly zeroed your iron sights and mounted the optic ,then try to bring the red dot at the tip of the front sight post,while watching from the rear sight.Basically you will have to make a lollipop in the front sight post.You can adjust the red dot for left,right,up and down through the instruction given by the manufacturer for the adjustment of that particular red dot sight.Once you have brought the red dot at the tip of the front sight post forming a lollypop your iron and red dot sights should be co-witnessed .You can confirm it placing your red dot sight over the point of aim on a target,at a range for which the iron sight have been zeroed in for.If your sights are co-witnessed properly your point of aim and point of impact would be same while shooting from the red dot sight.

There are two type of co witness-absolute co witness and lower 1/3 cowitness.

Absolute cowitness - The red dot sight is mounted at the same height as the iron sights.In this with your red dot off,your iron sights will line up at the centre of your red dot sight window ,basically the front sight post tip will be at the centre of the red dot sight window while viewing from the rear sight .(please note that the red dot sight should be mounted in the middle of the front and rear iron sight for this.)Now when you turn on your red dot it should sit at the tip of the front sight post for it to be absoulute co-witness.In this your iron sights and the red dot will line up at the centre of the red dot sight window.When the two sights are viewed together, the red dot is in the exact point of aim of the iron sights.

However there is a major downside of absolute co-witness,too many things is going on at the same time in your red dot sight window,the iron sight obstruct the visibility of the sight window which may hamper your situational awareness.For this reason there is another method of co-witness which is called lower 1/3 co-witness.In this the red dot sight is mounted higher than the iron sights, so that the iron sights sits at the lower 1/3 of the red dot sight window.The front sight post tip will be at the centre of the lower 1/3 of the red dot sight window, while viewing through the red dot sight window from the rear sight.When you turn on your red dot ,it should sit on the tip of the front sight post,if not do the require adjustment in the red dot sight to bring the red dot sight at the tip of front sight post ,thus forming a lollypop.Once the red dot sits on the tip of front sight post ,you have a lower 1/3 co-witness.The advantage of this is ,when you move your head up and look through the centre of the red dot sight window,you will see the red dot sight at the centre,since the iron sight are at the lower part ,it will leave your sight window free from getting congested.If your sight are properly co-witnessed then even if you will shoot through the red dot at the centre alone ,your point of aim and point of impact should be same as the iron sights.

-Even though the co-witness is a great way to align both types of your sights and to use one sighting system to verify the zero of the other.Still it brings complexity to what should have been a simple procedure and defeat the purpose of using the red dot sight,which is simple aiming.Further due to the design of the AK sight ,it is not easy to co-witness ,you will be required to mount your optic over the gas tube or handguard rail ,such option may or may not be available to you.

Therefore instead of co-witness you can take much simpler approach to use/zero the red dot sight on your AK.For this just forget about your iron sights,focus only on your red dot sight.Mount your red dot sight and switch it on,a red dot will appear in your sight window.Now choose a range to zero your rifle,and then with both your eyes open place the red dot on your point of aim and fire 5 shots in quick succession .Now check whether your point of aim and point of impact(where the bullets actually hit) are the same,if not then adjust your red dot as per the instruction and procedure for that red dot,bring the red dot to right ,left,up,low as required to match the point of aim to the point of impact.Once you have achieved the match between your point of aim and point of target by placing the red dot on the point of aim your red dot sight is properly zeroed for that range.Here the red dot will serve the similar purpose that the tip of front sight post serve in iron sight,so just place the red dot on your point of aim at a particular distance and if your red dot is zeroed for that distance the point of aim and point of impact will be same.For other ranges closer and far the bullet will hit slightly lower or up where you place your red dot, depending on the ballistic and trajectory of your zero.You can use the belt buckle method to hit your target ,that is place you red dot where the belt buckle is supposed to be and you will hit your target anywhere around the torso area from 0 to 300 meters distance.That means fatal shots on your target without adjusting your sights.So basically in this method there is no need of the iron sights,use the red dot sight alone for zeroing as well as shooting ,this is how the red dot sights are meant to be used.However please zero in your iron sights separately ,this way they will serve the purpose of your backup sights.If due to some reason you are not able to use the red dot sight,just dismount it and go back to your iron sights ,which have already been zeroed.If both your iron sights and your red dot sight are zeroed well separately, don’t worry about where they are in relation to each other,they will serve you right when used exclusively.Use you red dot sight alone and only use the iron sight as backup when required.
 

Attachments

Levina

Social media admin
Moderator
Joined
Dec 2, 2017
Messages
143
Reactions
438 21 0
#6
AKs PART 4 -end

Shooting stance /position

Thanks to movies , terrorist firing AK and numerous videos of combat from middle east where the training and marksmanship is not a priority, most of you would be under the impression that the correct way of firing an AK is holding it over your head and firing in full automatic, or holding the rifle way below your chest and fire complementing it with curses and die mother *censored*er die ,or whatever it sounds in your language. Unfortunately this is not the correct way of shooting .

==========

If you have to excel in shooting AK ,first you should know the basic fundamentals of the AK shooting stance/Positions -

- Standing without any support

When you are shooting in a standing position without any support,it is referred to as offhand in shooting terms.In this position you support -side shoulder and support side foot are forward and support side foot pointed towards the target.(Support side is referred to the opposite side of your trigger hand,for eg if your right hand is on the trigger of the rifle then your body left side will be support side ,while if your left hand is on the trigger then your right side will be your support side)

-Your feet should be slightly wider than a shoulder's width apart with trigger side foot at 45 degree angle relative to your target.

-When shooting and when moving with your assault rifle, you should be leaning forward, with your nose over your toes and your knees slightly bent. Your but is kicked out behind you.It makes it easier for you to absorb the relatively light recoil of the weapon, which makes follow-up shots more accurate.Always remember never to lean backward while shooting ,because when you shoot the rifle the recoil act on your body backward,when you are leaning front or standing your body will adjust to this recoil but while leaning backward ,your body will become unstable and the force of the recoil may knock you down.

-When you lift the butt of the AK to the pocket of your shoulder ,your support hand should be comfortably positioned on the handguard or forend of the AK.The purpose of the shoulder pocket is to provide a place for the rifle butt (the end of the stock, or the “back” of the gun) to press against.TO locate your shoulder pocket.Start at the center of your chest and find your collarbone. Run your fingers out along the collarbone toward your shoulder. Once you’ve identified the entire collarbone ridge, take your hand and place it horizontally just below your collarbone and press inward somewhat firmly. With the tips of your fingers you should be able to feel where your shoulder bones begin. You should also be able to feel a somewhat soft “empty” space just before you get to your shoulder bones. (Hint: you’re not quite at your armpit yet, but close). This is the so-called “shoulder pocket”. The butt of your rifle should rest here in this fleshy, muscled area and not touch any hard, bony parts of your body. The top of the stock should sit just below your collarbone and the side of the stock should sit just to the inside of your shoulder bones.

- Your support side elbow should be pointing down at a 30 to 45 degree angel.

-Hold the rifle firmly in both hands with 75-85 percent of the rearward pressure exerted with the forward support hand.

-The stock should be held firmly in the shoulder pocket,the rifle should be straight.

-Your trigger/firing hand should be on the pistol grip with the thumb wrapped around the pistol grip exerting 15-25 percent of the pressure.

-Your firing /trigger side arm should be held at the same angle as your support side arm.

-Always keep your elbows in, tight to your body, when firing and handling your weapon. This
makes you more compact and promotes better stability .Never make make the mistake of letting the elbows drift out away from the body,outwards.

- Now find your natural point of aim and shoot.Natural point of aim is the point where the Service rifle sights settle when both bone support and muscular relaxation are achieved. Since the Service rifle becomes an extension of the body, it may be necessary to adjust the position of the body until the Service rifle sights settle naturally on the desired aiming point located on the target. When in a firing position with proper sight alignment, the position of the tip of the front sight post, or the reticle pattern in the optics, will indicate the natural point of aim.When completely relaxed, the tip of the front sight post or the reticle pattern will indicate the natural point of aim.

- to summarize the standing firing stance ,The feet are kept approximately shoulder-width apart. Toes are pointed straight to the front (direction of movement). The trigger side foot is slightly staggered to the rear of the support side foot. Knees are slightly bent and the upper body is leaned slightly forward.

=============

2) The Kneeling Position

-The kneeling position can be assumed by either moving forward or dropping back into position.

-To move forward into the kneeling position,you should step forward toward the target with your support foot and kneel down on your trigger/shooting side knee.Whereas to drop back into the kneeling position ,you leave the your support foot in its place as it is,and step backward with your trigger/shooting side foot and kneel down on your firing knee.

-With the trigger/shooting side knee on the ground ,your buttstock should be resting on your shoulder pocket in line with the heel of the shooting side foot.

-The support side leg should be forward with foot flat on the ground.

-The support side elbow should be forward of the knee so that the underside of the upper arm is resting on the flat portion of the support side knee to provide stability.

-Find your natural point of aim and shoot.

==========

3) Sitting position

-Sit down cross legged(baba ramdev style) with your support leg over your trigger side leg .

-The support side shoulder should be toward the target and body at a 45 degree angle to the taeget.

- Place your buttstock on the ground as close to your crossed legs as comfortable,bend forward at the waist and place your support elbow on your support side leg into the bend of the knee.

-Grasp the buttstock of your AK with your trigger/Shooting side hand and place the butt into your shoulder pocket.When the butt is seated firmly into your shoulder grasp the pistol grip firmly with your trigger hand.

-Now lower your trigger/shooting side elbow to the inside of your trigger/shooting side knee.

-place your cheek firmly against the stock to obtain firm stock weld and move your support hand under the handguard of the rifle.

-Find your natural point of aim and shoot.

==========

4) The Squatting Position

- With your body at 45 degree angle from the target ,sit down (just like in Indian toilet,or like when you get light on roadside or jungle ,we are talking about number 2) with both feet flat on the ground and your torso leaning forward .

- It is important to note that elbows should not meet with the knees here (because bone-to-bone contact makes the position unstable). Instead the knees should support the muscles of the upper forearms for a stabler position.

- Accquire your natural point of aim and shoot.

- This position is also referred to as the "rice paddy squat" or the "rice paddy prone" position.

===================

5 )Prone Position

The prone position provides a very steady foundation for shooting and presents a low profile for maximum concealment. However, the prone position is the least mobile of the firing positions and may restrict your field of view for observation. In the prone position, your weight is evenly distributed on your elbows, providing maximum support and good stability for the Service rifle. Depending on the combat situation, the prone position can be assumed by either moving forward or dropping back into position.


To move forward into the prone position
- Stand erect, face the target, and place your feet a comfortable distance apart (i.e., approximately shoulder width).

-Place your support hand on the rail system/fore grip/grip pod and your trigger/shooting hand on the pistol grip.

- Lower yourself into position by dropping to both knees .
- Shift your weight forward to lower the upper body to the ground, using your support hand to break the forward motion .

To drop back into the prone position—

- Face the target.

-Place your support hand on the rail system/fore grip/grip pod and your firing hand on the pistol grip.

- Squat to the ground and break your fall with your support hand .

- Kick both legs straight out to the rear .

Now since we have have discussed the shooting position ,let's talk about marksmanship/shooting also as knowing the basic fundamentals of marksmanship will help you a lot to become a effective shooter.

The fundamentals of marksmanship

In marksmanship, there are no tricks or shortcuts. The secret of effective marksmanship is the application of the fundamentals.There are four basic fundamental of marksmanship.

1) Steady Position
2) Aiming
3) Breathing
4) Trigger control
5) Follow-through

===========

1)Steady position

-As the name suggest ,it is all about how to maintain a good,stable position while shooting.The principles are basically same as we have discussed above in various shooting postions.It is all about correct grip,stance .Like positioning of the support hand should be in v shape holding the handguard of the rifle,your support hand grip should not be too tight but light.The rifle stock should always rest firmly into your shoulder pocket.The forefinger is placed on the trigger ,remaining three fingers will firmly grip the pistol grip .The position of your elbows depend on your firing position and stance which have already been discussed above. Stock weld is the point of firm contact between your cheek and the stock of the rifle.Correct stock weld will allow your head to be as erect as possible and enable the aiming eye to look straight through the rear sight aperture.Changing the placement of your cheek up or down on the stock from shot to shot may affect shot placement and the zero on the rifle, due to your perception of the rear sight notch (U).

2)Aiming

- Aiming is applying correct sight alignment to a target.
-Here we first need to focus and learn about sight alignment.Sight alignment is the relationship between the front sight post and the rear sight and the aiming eye. This relationship is critical in aiming and must remain consistent from shot to shot. A sight alignment error results in a misplaced shot. As the distance to the target increases, so does the margin of error. For correct sight alignment you would require to centre the front sight post (I) in the rear sight notch (U) .The top of the front sight must be level with the top of the rear sight and in alignment with the eye(if you are not sure which is your dominant eye,extend your arm and point your finger at an object.Close your left eye first and observe your finger with your right eye.Then open your left eye and close your right eye,and observe your finger.Whichever eye observes your finger pointing directly at the object is your dominant eye.So ,basically Correct sight alignment is centering the tip of the front sight post(I) centered both vertically and horizontally in the rear sight notch (u).

-Sight Picture - Sight picture is the placement of the tip of the front sight post in relation to the target while maintaining correct sight alignment. Correct sight alignment, but improper sight picture on the target causes the bullet to impact the target incorrectly. The bullet impacts the spot where the sights were aimed, when the bullet exited the muzzle.A correct sight picture consists of proper sight alignment ,with the front sight placed center mass of the target.The eye can focus on only one object at a time at different distances;therefore,the last point of focus of the eye is on the front sight post (I) .When the front sight post is seen clearly ,the rear sight and target will appear out of focus and blurry,it's normal.

-The human eye can focus clearly on only one object at a time. For accurate shooting, it is important to focus on the tip of the front sight post throughout the aiming process. Remember that this weapon is point of aim point of impact, so if focus is directed to the target the sights will drift ever so slightly, disrupting correct sight alignment and causing inaccurate and erratic shots. You should shift focus repeatedly from the front sight post to the target, until the correct sight picture is obtained. Once correct sight picture is obtained, your primary focus should be the tip of the front sight post. This enables the detection of minute errors in correct sight alignment and ensures accuracy in marksmanship. You can still use secondary/peripheral vision, although blurred, to ensure a good and consistent sight picture.

- To stare or fix vision on the front sight post for longer than a few seconds, depending on the shooter, can affect a shooter’s perception of a true sight picture. It may distort the image, and make it difficult to detect minute errors in correct sight alignment.Taking to long to take a shot can cause inaccurate shots due to the possibility of fatigue and discomfort in the body and aiming eye.So, as soon as you acquire natural point of aim,shoot.

-You should always Clean and Blacken (if require)your front sight post. Shiny sights can cause glare, making it difficult to obtain proper sight alignment and sight picture. By blackening the sights it will eliminate the glare caused by the bare metal glistening in the sunlight. If the sights are blackened the you must ensure that you clean the sight after each day. The reason for this is that the sight will become larger and distorted due to the build up of sight black as the firing days progress.

3) Breathing

Good breath control will interrupt your breathing cycle long enough to fire a well aimed shot. Proper breath control is very important to the aiming process. Breathing causes the body to move. This movement transfers to the rifle making it impossible to maintain proper sight picture. Breath control allows you to fire the rifle at the moment of least movement.

b. Natural Respiratory Pause. A respiratory cycle (inhaling and exhaling) lasts about four or five seconds. Between respiratory cycles there is a natural pause of two to three seconds. This is the natural respiratory pause, where the breath naturally stops exhaling with out forcing any air out. During this respiratory pause, breathing muscles are relaxed and the rifle sights settle at their natural point of aim. You should fire at this point.To hold the breath properly,take a deep breath and let it out,much like a sigh.Once you have let all the air out of your lungs without forcing it out,you will be at your natural respiratory pause.All that will remain in your lungs is what is called your residual volume.This state will serve to relax you and remove any tension associated with holding your breath.Your goal should be to breathe normally and take your shots at the natural respiratory pause.The natural respiratory pause is the point of greatest relative physiological stability.This technique of breath control is used and when time is available to fire a shot,or you are firing single shot. A respiratory cycle (inhaling and exhaling) lasts about four or five seconds. Between respiratory cycles there is a natural pause of two to three seconds. This is the natural respiratory pause, where the breath naturally stops exhaling with out forcing any air out. During this respiratory pause, breathing muscles are relaxed and the rifle sights settle at their natural point of aim. The shooter should fire at this point.

- For rapid firing you can apply the technique of holding your breath .For it assume a firing Position,take a deep breath, allowing a large amount of oxygen to cycle through your body.Now exhale until you hit your respiratory pause.Fire as many shots as comfortable while holding your respiratory pause.The pause should last as long as you feel comfortable with it. It depends on your physical condition and lung capacity.If you will hold your breath longer than comfortable,it will result in a lack of oxygen,which can cause your vision to deteriorate and may affects your ability to focus on the sights.So hold your breath only as long as you are comfortable.

4) Trigger control

Trigger control is the skillful manipulation of the trigger that causes the rifle to fire, while maintaining sight alignment and sight picture. Controlling the trigger is a mental process, while pulling the trigger is a physical process.

-A high firm grip is essential for good trigger control. With a high grip the trigger finger is very close to being parallel with the deck, and because of this the shooter is able to pull the trigger straight and to the rear. If the firing grip was much lower on the pistol grip your trigger finger would pull downward on the weapon as the trigger was being manipulated. This will cause a disrupting of sight alignment and be a complete contradiction to the definition of trigger control. You want a firm pistol grip so that you can isolate the muscles in your trigger finger from the rest of the hand. This will allow only the trigger finger to move and the rest of the fingers will not move as the trigger is being pulled to the rear. If the whole hand squeezes the pistol grip then your sight alignment will be disrupted. Establish a grip before starting the application of trigger control and maintain it through the shot’s duration.

-Place the fingers and thumb around the pistol grip in a location that allows the trigger finger to rest naturally on the trigger.The grip should be firm and high enough to allow manipulation of the trigger, without disturbing the sights.You should always have a consistent amount of pressure on the grip.This pressure must be equal to or greater than that required to pull the trigger. If not,your hand will have the tendency to tighten the grip on the pistol grip as your finger is pulling the trigger.Which may affect your sight alignment.Please note that while shooting your trigger finger muscle,should act independently of rest of your hand .

- Your trigger finger should contact the trigger naturally. You should not make any special effort to place a certain portion of the finger on the trigger. Trigger finger placement depends greatly on the size of your hand and the manner in which you grip the pistol grip. Placement is correct, when it allows trigger movement straight to the rear, without disturbing sight alignment.If the finger is angled on the trigger, this causes pressure to be applied at a slight angle rather than straight to the rear. Side pressure, no matter how slight, tends to pull the sights off the aiming point.

- Your trigger finger placement should be consistent from shot to shot. This will enable you to learn how much pressure needs to be applied for them to manipulate the trigger without disturbing sight alignment or sight picture.

- There are two techniques of proper trigger control. First is uninterrupted, and the second is interrupted.

Uninterrupted trigger control is applying smooth and continuous pressure to the rear until the shot is fired. This is the preferred method of trigger control.

Interrupted trigger control is applying smooth and continuous pressure to the rear until an error is detected in the aiming process. When this occurs rearward pressure is stopped until sight picture is achieved. When the sight picture settles the rearward pressure is continued until the shot is fired.

You should let the rifle move naturally and apply uninterrupted trigger control. Once the rifle has moved outside of the intended aiming point you will use interrupted trigger control until the rifle moves back naturally into the intended aiming point.

-Controlling the trigger is a mental process. Everyone has probably heard or read that trigger control is such a subconscious process that a surprise shot is fired. This is a good way to develop trigger control. You must develop trigger control, to ensure that at the moment you fire the shot the tip of the front sight post settles on the aiming point. It should be a subconscious effort not to disturb the aiming point or sight alignment.

- When you will have enough experience with the rifle ,you will be aware of the behaviour of its trigger,and when it will fire.You can use this knowledge to manipulate trigger ,so that the shot is fired when the front sight post is at the aiming point.

- While pressing the trigger you should avoid jerking ,that is abruptly moving the trigger rearward, causing it to disturb sight alignment and sight picture.The trigger should be moved in one continuous, even motion to the rear.

- You should also avoid bucking and flinching.Bucking is caused by the shooter forcing their firing shoulder forward into the rifle as they fire the shot. Bucking is due to the shooter forcing the rifle to fire, instead of letting the shot break as sight picture is acquired.Whereas flinching occurs when the shooter anticipates the shot, recoil, or report of the shot firing. With flinching, the shooter involuntarily tenses the muscles in the entire body causing the shooter to jump as the shot is fired. Blinking as the shot is fired often accompanies flinching.

======

5) Follow-through

- Follow-through is the continued application of the basic fundamentals of marksmanship, until the round has exited the rifle barrel.

- Follow-through is important so the direction of your shot will not be disturbed. Proper follow-through reduces the likelihood of errors.Follow-through also allows for faster follow on shots if necessary.

Field Stripping / Disassembling
















The AKM by design is an extremely robust and reliable rifle ,it can take a lot of abuse and still work like a charm,there is no question about it.Having said that it does not mean that you do not take care of it ,always take care of the rifle and the rifle will take care of you.So it is recommended that you clean your rifle after every time you use it.The design of the rifle is in such a way that not much outside dust or foul gases can make its way into the firing mechanism,but sill remember that every time your fire the rifle there is a mini explosion inside it ,which result in lot of corrosive material residue,so you must clean your rifle to prevent it from rusting and to make sure it function smoothly. The cleaning of the AKM include basic cleaning and then lubrication but before that you will have to strip the rifle or in other words disassemble it so that you can clean it.

Here is a step by step descrption of Field Stripping / Disassembling of AKM rifle.

- Please make sure that you disassemble the rifle on a table,sheet,or a clear ground or floor basically any place where you can easily lay out the different parts of the rifle after disassembly in your clear view.

- First place your rifle at safety by pushing the selector lever to the top most postion with your finger.
- Now push the magazine catch(located in front of the trigger guard) forward toward the magazine and take out the magazine by pushing it forward and then pulling it down.

- Now bring the selector lever to the downmost position(which will be single fire) ,by this you will be taking the safety off in your rifle.Once you have done this pull the charging handle (metal tab protruding out and located on the left hand ,front side of the rifle receiver ) back to the rear of the rifle receiver by your hands and then release it and let it go back to its original position on its own,do this twice.Doing this will eject any live round or cartridge present inside your rifle either through the ejection port or down through the magazine slot which will be open (Please note that you can pull back the charging handle back and inspect the chamber even with your safety lever on safe at top position ,but while the safety is on, your charging handle will not travel all the way back to the rear but it will only travel to a certain distance back and then will stop,so to allow the free movement of the charging handle we need to bring the selector lever down/safety off)

- Now again pull the charging handle back ,but this time instead of releasing it at the rear hold it there with your hand.This will leave the port (located on the left hand side )open,inspect the rifle chamber and bolt face ,if there is any round in it or not,once you are satisfied that there is no round inside there let of the charging handle and let it return to its original position.

- The above steps will ensure that your rifle is safe ,which means that there are no rounds left inside it,which may cause an accident.

- Once again bring your charging handle back and let it return to its original position,basically cock or charge your rifle(please note the selector lever will remain at bottom most position at safety off) .This is done because we have to make sure that the hammer is in the cocked position in the rifle,before we open its action else the hammer will block the removal of bolt carrier inside the rifle.

- Place the stock of your rifle on the ground or solid base ,hold the rifle handguard or fore end with your support hand and then take out the cleaning rod ( a metal rod located just below the barrel of the rifle) with your other hand.Lift out the cleaning rod by pushing it down ,toward yourself and then pulling /sliding it out forward from the front end.

- When you will come to the rear of an AKM receiver ,you will notice a metal button protruding /coming out from the rear of the receiver just above the front end of the rifle stock.This button is the serrated end of the driving spring guide present inside the rifle.Push this button inward /forward into the rifle.

-While holding the button in, lift up the receiver top cover and push it back to remove it from the rifle.The top metal cover ,covering the receiver also known as top cover will come out,revealing the internal mechanism of the rifle.

- Once the top cover is removed,again push the same button which you have pressed earlier to remove the top cover.That button is situated at the end of recoil spring guide,as you push the button forward it disengage the recoil spring assembly from its seat in the rear of the receiver.Once it is disengage from the receiver ,slide out the recoil spring assembly out of the bolt carrier and remove it from the rifle.Please do note that while your push the serrated end(button ) of the recoil spring guide forward into the rifle from one hand,please hold the spring assembly from top by your other hand,else it might jump out .

- With the recoil spring out of the way, slide the bolt carrier and gas piston all the way back past the end of its rails (also called raceway). Then slightly lift up and continue to pull it backwards until the gas piston is free of the gas tube .Now pull the bolt carrier out(bolt carrier include the bolt and gas piston integrated into one,as it is a long stroke piston piston,the bolt carrier will also have the charging handle protruding out from its left side.).Another way is that you can pull back the charging handle to the rear,until the piston comes out of the gas tube,once it does just lift up and remove it from the rifle.

- Now that the bolt carrier is free from the gun,you will have to remove the bolt from the bolt carrier .For this turn the bolt head so that the guide lug aligns with the cam surface of the bolt carrier, move the bolt as far to the rear position as possible.Rotate the bolt counterclockwise so that the guide lug leaves the camway of the bolt carrier,this will detach the bolt from the bolt carrier.Pull the bolt forward and out of the carrier.None of these steps require any force. If you think you need to use force, STOP! because you are doing something wrong.

-The next step is to remove the gas tube. To do this, you need to flip the gas tube locking lever upwards. You'll find this lever on the right side of the rear sight block. Moving the lever up will allow you to lift the gas tube right off.

-Now your rifle is disassembled and ready for cleaning.Please note that we can disassemble the rifle further down,but that is not required as this is enough to properly clean and lubricate the rifle,you do not require to break down into further parts unless you want to replace them or repair them.

Cleaning and lubrication

You can shoot 1000 of rounds from your without ever cleaning it,as an AK has extreme tolerance .However ,However, regular cleaning does prevent corrosion, which will build up if you don’t do it. It will also prevent unnecessary wear and tear.

- Start with a patch of cloth or a brush ,you can use a tooth brush .Now take some soapy water and soak your brush or cloth in it and scrub the metal parts of your rifle properly like receiver both from outside and inside ,trigger group etc.Also clean the parts which you have taken out from your rifle,recoil spring,bolt carrier group,gas cylinder/tube .Run a copper wire brush through the barrel with the cleaning rod,to clear the carbon residue that may have been accumulated there.

-Once your have scrubbed,rubbed and cleaned all metal parts of the rifle ,it will leave a greaseless, bare metal finish.

-Now it is time for oiling and lubricating the metal parts of the rifle.

- You can use any type of lubricant oil,machine oil,motor oil or any type of lubricating grease to lubricate your rifle.

- Now apply a very thin film of oil/lubricant of your choice over all the metal parts of the rifle including the recoil spring.lube all moving parts such as the bolt, bolt carrier, trigger (aka fire control group), as well as the rails that the carrier group ride on. Inside /outside of the receiver.Put a few drop of lubricant on a piece of cloth ,place it on top of the cleaning rod and run it up and down the barrel few time,please remember you have to put a very thin coat of oil inside the barrel,unless you are not storing the rifle for a long time,in that case you need to oil up the barrel properly.Once you have run the run the oiled cloth through your barrel,replace it with a dry cloth and run it few time up and down through the barrel and you are good to go.

-Please do note to avoid oiling,lubricating any wooden /polymer part of the rifle.

- With this we have cleaned and lubricated are rifle.

Reassembly

With everything cleaned and lubricated it's time to reassemble the rifle.

-First put the cleaning rod back in. Slide it through its hole in the bayonet lug and push it all the way back until you hear it snap back in place underneath the front sight post.

- Now hold the gas tube which you have earlier removed from the rifle,line the front of the gas tube with the opening in the gas block situated in above the barrel in front.Then seat the rear of the gas tube into the rear sight base.Once the gas tube is properly seated ,push down the gas tube locking lever down,at an 45 degree angle(you had pushed this lever up while removing the gas tube earlier).With the gas tube locking lever pushed down,it will lock the gas tube in its place.

- To reassemble the bolt.Slide the rotating bolt backwards into the hole on the bolt carrier,then rotate the bolt clockwise until the operating lug mate with its can path. Now move it forward down its spiral track until it’s all the way to the front and can go no further. With the rotating bolt in its most forward position, the extractor should be pointing in the same direction as the charging handle with this you have successfully put together the bolt carrier group.

- Get hold of the bolt carrier group and slide the front side of the gas piston into the hole under the rear sight.Align the back of the assembled bolt carrier with the slot all the way on the back on the rails. Push the bolt carrier down and then gently slide it all the way forward on its rails. Since the hammer is cocked the bolt carrier should slide forward with relative ease. If it does not slide on with ease, You either have it on the rails crooked, hammer is not cocked, or you did not correctly reassemble the bolt back into the bolt carrier ,bolt should be all the way forward in the spiral when you put the bolt carrier assembly back in.Check for your mistake ,identify it and rectify it ,and then push the bolt carrier fully forward on its rails.

- With the bolt carrier properly seated in its place,insert the recoil spring in the hole located in the rear of the bolt carrier group.And reset the recoil spring guide into its slot at the rear of the receiver ,from where you have unseated it.

- Align the front of the receiver cover with the circular groove in the rear sight base. Once it’s aligned, push down the receiver cover to snap it in place on the receiver cover retainer button.Make sure the rear end of the recoil spring guide(the button which you have earlier pushed to remove the receiver cover) is snapped through the hole present at the rear of the receiver cover.

- Now pull the charging handle to the rear and let it return to its original position(basically cock your rifle),repeat this for 2-3 times.Now dry fire(dry firing is firing the rifle with empty chamber) the rifle(press the trigger pointing the rifle towards sky or any safe direction.Again cock the rifle and if the rifle perform all action smoothly press the trigger for one last time to relax the spring ,and then put away the rifle till the time it is required.Please note that if the rifle does not function properly,identify the problem,rectify it ,and make sure it operate smoothly .

Hope you have been able to learn something new from this post.This information will not make you an expert on an AK ,as you need to spend some time with the rifle to understand it ; nothing can beat the practical experience,still this will surely help you in learning the fundamentals of AK.Please also refer to the videos related to the various part of operation of an AK,such videos can be accessed on youtube.The purpose of this post was to make you familiar with the basics of handling and other things related to an AK.

AKM technical specification

Caliber -7.62x39mm
Operation -Gas operated ,long stroke piston.
Locking- Rotating bolt
Feed - 30 round detachable box magazine
Empty weight without magazine -3.14kg
Overall length (fixed butt) -34.7inches
Barrel length -16.3inches
Sights -Front: post Rear:U notch
Rate of fire -600 rpm
Maximum effective range - 400m
Mode : Select fire (semi and full automatic.
Muzzle velocity : 710 m/s