Chinese Wuhan Virus Thread

lcafanboy

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Dec 22, 2017
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BMD

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RISING SUN

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Dec 3, 2017
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Corbevax gets approval as first mix-and-match booster vaccine​

Vaccine manufacturer Biological E’s protein sub-unit Covid-19 vaccine Corbevax has become the first to be approved by the country’s drug regulator as a heterologous booster in adults, meaning those who have received Covishield or Covaxin as their first or second dose can take it as a third booster shot.

So far, mixing-and-matching of Covid-19 vaccines was not allowed in India and the third dose had to be the same vaccine used for the first and second dose.
With the Drug Controller General of India (DCGI) now approving the heterologous booster, the government will have to take a call on whether it should be included in the country’s free vaccination drive.

Also Read |Explained: The merits and concerns of mixing Covid-19 vaccines
India has so far administered 193.9 crore doses of vaccine in total, of which 101 crore are first doses, 89 crore second doses, and 3.5 crore precaution doses, according to data from the government’s CoWIN portal.

In a statement Saturday, the Hyderabad-based company said, “BE’s clinical trial data showed that CORBEVAX® booster dose provided significant enhancement in immune response and excellent safety profile required for an effective booster.”​


The approval came after a trial involving 416 people who were administered Corbevax or placebo (an agent with no therapeutic value) six months after having received two doses of either Covaxin or Covishield.

The company, in its statement, said the levels of neutralising antibodies – antibodies that specifically attack or block the Sars-CoV-2 virus – increased significantly as compared to the placebo.

After the booster dose of Corbevax, neutralising antibodies against Omicron were found in 91% of those who had received Covishield earlier and 75% of those who had received Covaxin.

Not just antibody levels, the company also found cell-mediated immunity to be higher as compared to the placebo. “The Corbevax heterologous booster vaccine was well tolerated and safe. There were no severe or adverse events of interest for 3 months of follow-up after the booster dose was administered,” the company said.

Currently, the vaccine is in use for immunisation of children between the ages of 12 and 14 years under the government programme. It is also available on payment for children between 12 and 17 years at private vaccination centres.
 

RISING SUN

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Dec 3, 2017
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India’s first Covid-19 vaccine for animals: why the need was felt​

The Agriculture Ministry on Thursday unveiled India’s first Covid-19 vaccine for animals. Developed by the Hisar-based National Research Centre on Equines, the vaccine, called Ancovax, can protect animals against the Delta and Omicron variants of SARS-CoV-2.

HOW IT WORKS: Ancovax can be used in dogs, lions, leopards, mice, and rabbits. It is an inactivated vaccine developed using an infectious part of the Delta variant. In addition, it uses Alhydrogel as an adjuvant to boost the immune response.

This is the first Covid-19 vaccine for animals developed in India. There were reports from Russia last year that that country, too, had developed a vaccine against animals such as dogs, cats, minks, and foxes.

THE NEED: There have been reports of Covid-19 infection in several animals, including dogs and cats. “The vaccine can protect animals in the zoo. It can also prevent transmission from companion animals to the humans,” said Dr Jyoti Misri, senior scientist, Indian Council of Agricultural Research.

The risk of animals spreading the infection to humans is considered low, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
The aim of the vaccine is to protect endangered animals such as lions and tigers. India reported at least nine Covid infections in Asiatic lions in Chennai zoo last year, with one of the lioness likely to have died of it. This prompted closure of tiger reserves for tourism. Other than that, a study by the Indian Veterinary Research Institute found at least three natural Covid infections in wild Asiatic lions, and a dead leopard cub was found dead and then tested positive for Covid-19.

“There have been a few cases reported in wildlife across the world, some from the zoo, and some in pets. However, percentage-wise, it is very low. The animals develop similar symptoms to humans – cough, cold, fever, and lung lesions. However, since the disease is zoonotic [it can be transmitted from animals to humans], a vaccine would help. However, which vaccine we use has to be carefully decided,” said Dr AB Shrivastav, former director, School of Wildlife Forensic and Heath, Jabalpur.

WHY TYPE MATTERS: While declining to comment on this vaccine specifically, Dr Shrivastav said a killed vaccine for wild animals is always better than a live-attenuated vaccine (where a weakened live virus is used).

“We avoid live vaccine in wild animals. This is because a live vaccine might have been attenuated for one particular species, but it can still cause disease in another. Some 15 or 20 years back, a rabies vaccine developed for dogs was given to wolves in Africa and unfortunately the entire pack died. A killed virus vaccine will not harm the animals,” he said.